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Friday, August 12, 2011

Flying Cars, Bikes and Trikes

Airphibian Story - Worlds First Flying Car

Video Link...

AEROCAR Flying Car

Video Link....


Video Link...

Next Generation Transition(R) Unveiled

Video Link...

Terrafugia Transition Flight Test #1146

Video Link....

Flying Car Heaven!!! $14,995 This Exists!! This Is NOT A Prototype Mock Up! Buy a paramotor Now!!!

Video Link...

Maverick Flying Car

Video Link...

Flying Car - The Maverick

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American Morning: Missionary builds flying car

Embedding disabled by request
Video Link...

Man oh Man! What cool Toys!:) I love those old Original Flying Cars! But I have to say.... I would sure love the convenance of being able to drive my brand new Terrafugia Transition down to the local Airport. We have a nice little Country Air port just 10 or 20 miles down the road. And then, just taking off, to who knows where!:) Then again... I love that feeling of the wind in your face and the feeling of almost flying. That I use to get when jumping my Dirt Bike (when I was younger;). So, I might just like flying through the Clouds, aloft in a Three Wheeler with Wings!:) Oh! and I almost forgot! The Dune Buggy with a Para-Sail!:) The Maverick Flying Car. Man, that thing would be soo Cool!

Ok, wait! I found one more cool Video! Well, it's really very dorky! But, it's funny and they made it that way on purpose:)...


CAFE: Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency
Race to the Future
This short film was commissioned by the CAFE Foundation to detail the promise of PAV and NextGen initiatives to the general public.
The video is embeded on this page or there's a link to the video page below...

Video Link...

Aircraft Planes - Valley Engineering Introduces The Back Yard Flyer UL
Flying Cars, Bikes and Trikes
Discovery News - Future Transportation : Videos : Discovery News
the transition flying car - Google Search
Terrafugia - Transition®, the Roadable Light Sport Aircraft : Home
Flying Car from Volante Aircraft
Flying Car in flight. Volante Aircraft
Flying Car Program, a Kit from Volante Aircraft
Flying Car Program, a Kit from Volante Aircraft
Terrafugia - Transition<sup>®</sup> the Roadable Light Sport Aircraft : The Vehicle
Terrafugia - Transition® the Roadable Light Sport Aircraft : Multimedia
Terrafugia - Transition® the Roadable Light Sport Aircraft : Video
Next Generation Transition(R) Unveiled - YouTube
switchblade - YouTube
Flight Test #1146 - YouTube
Switchblade "flying car" test vehicle with Suzuki Hayabusa Engine - YouTube
Flying motorcycle - YouTube
Flying motorcycle - YouTube
switchblade - YouTube
Moller SkyCar - Flying car - YouTube
Urban Aeronautics AirMule hovering - YouTube
Terrafugia - Transition® the Roadable Light Sport Aircraft : Video
the transition flying car - Google Search
flying car - Google Search
Hybrid Vehicle
flying car - Google Search
Flying car image - Images: The flying car from Texas - CNET News
Flying car up for sale on eBay - Telegraph
Aerocar Flying Car Invention Newsreel and Stock Footage
Terrafugia Transition: Flying car available for mass market in one year. - By Annie Lowrey - Slate Magazine
GEAR FACTOR - Airstage Flying Event Solutions - Flying Show Parts - Flying Car
Flying Car - YouTube
flying car - YouTube
Don's Favorite Air Craft - YouTube
Flying Car - The Maverick - YouTube
Beyond Roads | Maverick Sport
Maverick Flying Car - YouTube
Beyond Roads | Maverick Sport
Beyond Roads | Maverick Sport
Flying Car - Maverick 2 - YouTube
Missionary builds flying car - YouTube
Flying Car - YouTube
SPEED RECORD!!! $14,995 Flying Car!!! Fastest Practical Paramotor Trike, Powered Paraglider - YouTube
HD Powered Paragliding S-Trike paramotor Extreme Flying Fun!!! - YouTube
flying car in flight - YouTube
Parajet Skycar - The flying car maiden flight. - YouTube
flying car motorcycle - YouTube
Flying motorcycle - YouTube
Urban Aeronautics AirMule UAV First Engine Start - YouTube
Testing Sexy Switchblade commentary #1 - YouTube
Flying Car Heaven!!! $14,995 This Exists!! This Is NOT A Prototype Mock Up! Buy a paramotor Now!!! - YouTube
Flying car (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:Waterman Aerobile 6.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:Jess Dixon in his flying automobile.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Personal air vehicle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aerocar Flying Car Invention Stock Footage clip
File:Taylor-Aerocar-III.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:Fulton Airphibian FA-3-101.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:Terrafugia Transition at SciFoo2008 GoogleHQ.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:Maverick Flying Car.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:PD-1 Roadable Glastar.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hybrid flying cars for the military by DARPA
Flying Cars | Future Flying Cars
Flying Motorcycles - YouTube
Motorcycle On Board - YouTube
Flying Motorcycle from Hot Air Balloon - YouTube
Samson Switchblade Breaks 100 MPH - YouTube
Flying motorcycle - YouTube
Tran Vuia and his flying machine - YouTube
PD-1 Roadable Glastar - YouTube
Plane Driven PD-1 - Roadable Airplane - YouTube
Plane Driven | First flight & Flying Sequence | Roadable Airplane - YouTube
Plane Driven - Flyby - YouTube
Aerocar - YouTube
aerocar - YouTube
AEROCAR Flying Car - YouTube
Molt Taylor's Aerocar - YouTube
Fulton Airphibian FA-3-101 - YouTube
Fulton Airphibian - YouTube
The Airphibian (They All Laughed) Charlie & Stephane Biddle - YouTube
Airphibian Story - Worlds First Flying Car - YouTube
The Airphibian Tribute - Inventor -Robert Fulton Jr - by Juan Houston - YouTube
1952 newsreel- latest futuristic and experimental aircraft - YouTube
CAFE Foundation
Race to the Future on Vimeo
Flying Cars And Roadable Aircraft
The Hovercopter
Introducing the Torque Stabilized Vertical Lifting System - Home Page
BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Flying cars swoop to the rescue
Flying Cars
Home - iCar 101 - The ultimate roadable aircraft
iCar 101 virtual takeoff / Videos / Home - iCar 101 - The ultimate roadable aircraft
Flying Cars & Airborne Oddities - Photo Gallery - LIFE
iCar 101 virtual takeoff - YouTube
iCar Evolution / Home - iCar 101 - The ultimate roadable aircraft
Hordern-Richmond Autoplane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bryan Autoplane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Waldo Waterman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:Waterman Aerobile in flight.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ford Flivver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flying car (aircraft) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Flying car (aircraft)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see: Flying car. For non-real (fictional) flying cars, see: Flying car (fiction).

Moller Skycar M400 to the right, next to older Moller models
A flying car or roadable aircraft is an aircraft that can also travel along roads. All the working examples have required some manual or automated process of conversion between the two modes of operation.
A slightly different concept that is sometimes referred to as a "flying car", particularly in science fiction, is that of an aircraft that would be practical enough for every-day travel, but would not necessarily be drivable on the roads.[1]



[edit] History

[edit] Early experiments

Glenn Curtiss, the chief rival of the Wright brothers, was the first to design a flying car. His large, three-wing Curtiss Autoplane was able to hop, not fly.[2]
In 1926, Henry Ford displayed an experimental single-seat aeroplane that he called the "sky flivver". The project was abandoned two years later when a distance-record attempt flight crashed, killing the pilot.[3] The Flivver was not a flying car at all, but it did get press attention at the time, exciting the public that they would have a mass produced affordable airplane product that would be made, marketed, sold, and maintained just like an automobile. The airplane was to be as commonplace in the future as the Model T of the time.
The first flying car to actually fly was built by Waldo Waterman. Waterman was associated with Curtiss while Curtiss was pioneering naval aviator on North Island on San Diego Bay in the 1910s. On March 21, 1937, Waterman's Arrowbile first took to the air.[4] The Arrowbile was a development of Waterman's tailless aircraft, the Whatsit.[5] It had a wingspan of 38 feet (11 m) and a length of 20 feet 6 inches (6.25 m). On the ground and in the air it was powered by a Studebaker engine. It could fly at 112 mph (180 km/h) and drive at 56 mph (90 km/h).

[edit] Post-war development

In the 1950s, the western world was recovering from World War II and everything seemed possible.[citation needed] The flying car was a vision of transportation in the 21st century, and a common feature of science fiction futures.
Although several designs (such as the Convair flying car) have flown, none have enjoyed commercial success, and those that have flown are not widely known about by the general public. The most successful example, in that several were made and one is still flying, is the 1949 Taylor Aerocar. One notable design, Henry Smolinski's Mizar, made by mating the rear end of a Cessna Skymaster with a Ford Pinto, disintegrated during test flights, killing Smolinski and the pilot.
In the 1950s, Ford Motor Company performed a serious feasibility study for a flying car product. They concluded that such a product was technically feasible, economically manufacturable, and had significant realistic markets. The markets explored included ambulance services, police and emergency services, military uses, and initially, luxury transportation. Some of these markets are now served by light helicopters. However, the flying car explored by Ford was projected to be at least fiftyfold less expensive.[citation needed]
When Ford approached the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) about regulatory issues, the critical problem was that the (then) known forms of air traffic control were inadequate for the volume of traffic Ford proposed. At the time, air traffic control consisted of flight numbers, altitudes and headings written on little slips of paper and placed in a case. Quite possibly computerized traffic control, or some form of directional allocation by altitude could resolve the problems. Other problems would also need to be resolved in some ways, however, including intoxicated pilots or pilots that drive/fly without a license. Standards would have to be agreed upon by the international community, such as air miles being translated to nautical miles and not affecting the reading of the odometer. Furthermore, there would be serious concerns among the public in built up urban areas, that malfunctioning or incorrectly operated flying cars could crash into houses, shopping districts or pedestrian areas, severely damaging buildings or killing civilians.[citation needed]

[edit] Historic flying cars and roadable aircraft

Jess Dixon's flying automobile c. 1940

[edit] Modern development

There is an active movement in the search for a practical flying car. Several conventions are held yearly to discuss and review current flying car projects. Two notable events are the Flying Car forum held at the world-famous EAA Airventure at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) conventions held at various cities.
The American Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, has shown a interest in the concept with a sixty five million dollar program to develop a four place roadable aircraft by 2015. The vehicle is required to take off vertically, and have a 280 mile range. Terrafugia, AAI Corporation, and other Textron companies have been awarded the contract.[6]
Flying cars fall into one of two styles; integrated (all the pieces can be carried in the vehicle), or modular (the pieces to fly are left at the airport when the vehicle is driven).

[edit] Current development examples

A number of companies are developing vehicles, although few have demonstrated a full-sized vehicle capable of free flight. These include:
  • The Parajet Skycar utilises a paramotor for propulsion and a parafoil for lift. The main body consists of a modified dune buggy. It has a top speed of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a maximum range of 180 miles (290 km) in flight. On the ground it has a top speed of 112 mph (180 km/h) and a maximum range of 249 miles (401 km). Parajet flew and drove its prototype from London to Timbuktu in January 2009. The company intends to produce a commercial version which would cost £50,000.
  • The Wernicke SkyCar The Wernicke four seat AirCar was designed during the 1990s and involves narrow wing technology to enable it to transition between flying and highway use without any alterations whatsoever. Motive power on the ground and in the air is by hydraulic drive and therefore no added gearbox is required. Prototype one-third scale models were extensively wind tunnel and flight tested.[citation needed]
  • Terrafugia, a private company founded by MIT graduates, has developed the Transition,[7] a roadable aircraft that the company describes as a "Personal Air Vehicle". The aircraft can fold its wings in 30 seconds and drive the front wheels, enabling it to operate as a traditional road vehicle and as a general aviation aeroplane. The Transition "Personal Air Vehicle" will be released to customers in late 2011. An operational prototype was displayed at Oshkosh in 2008[8] and its first flight occurred on 2009-03-05.[9] The estimated purchase price is $250,000[10]. Owners will drive the car from their garage to an airport where they will then be able to fly within a range of 100 mi (160 km) to 500 mi (800 km). It will carry two people plus luggage and its Rotax 912S engine operates on a single tank of premium unleaded gas.[11]
  • StrongMobile's Magic Dragon Aircar[12] has been developed by retired Air Force pilot-engineer Rich Strong over a 50-year period. The design uses an automobile-type lifting body fuselage and automotive suspension. Flight propulsion uses a front-mounted ducted fan with side outlets. Automatic conversion uses a combination of folding and swinging to stow the wings into the body. The current design envisions a core market of frequent regional business travellers whose time savings make using the StrongMobile virtually revenue neutral.
  • LaBiche Aerospace's LaBiche FSC-1[13] is a developmental prototype Flying Car and is an example of a practical flying car capable of utilizing today's automotive and aviation infrastructure to provide true "door-to-door" travel[citation needed]. The vehicle can be parked in any garage or parking space available for cars. The FSC-1 is the first known vehicle capable of automatic conversion from aircraft to car at the touch of a button. LaBiche has flown a 1/10 scale model, tested a ¼-scale model and is currently finishing the FSC-1 prototype for road and air testing, as of 2006. Currently, the FSC-1 requires a pilot and driver's license to operate. However, upon approval from the FAA, development is underway for utilizing a new satellite-navigation "hands free" flight system to travel from airport to airport that will eliminate the need for a pilot's license[citation needed]. Numerous safety systems and fail safes are also employed on the FSC-1, such as a recovery parachute. No news has been added to the website since September, 2007.
  • The Haynes Aero Skyblazer[14] is a development stage vehicle that uses a single turbofan engine to provide thrust in the air and to generate electricity to power electric motors for ground travel. In "car mode", a patented mechanism allows the wings to fold into the body of the vehicle, which is designed to fit into a single car garage and regular parking space. In "aircraft mode" the vehicle will have STOL capabilities and be able to use almost any public use airfield. It is expected to have a top speed of 400 mph (640 km/h) and a range of 830 miles (1,340 km). The skyblazer team has completed wind tunnel, stability and control testing and flown a 1/6 scale model.
  • The Milner AirCar[15] is an advanced composite four-door, four-passenger roadable aircraft (flying car) with foldable main wing at the rear and foldable canard in the front. The AirCar has a wingspan of 28 ft (8.5 m), maximum gross weight of 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) and a total of 300 hp (220 kW) from dual ducted fans. Cruise airspeed and range are expected to be 200 mph (322 km/h) for 1,000 miles (1,600 km). After landing the wings fold to a width of 7 ft (2.1 m) so the vehicle can drive on public roads. A drive-able, but non-flyable prototype is complete.
  • The Moller Skycar M400[16] is a prototype personal VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft that some refer to as a flying car, although it cannot be driven as an automobile. However, the Skycar is a good demonstration of the technological barriers to developing the VTOL flying car. Moller International continues to develop the Skycar M400, which is powered by four pairs of in-tandem Wankel rotary engines, and is approaching the problems of satellite-navigation, incorporated in the proposed Small Aircraft Transportation System. Moller also advises that, currently, the Skycar would only be allowed to fly from airports & heliports. Moller has been developing VTOL craft since the late 1960s, but no Moller vehicle has ever achieved free flight out of ground effect. The proposed Autovolantor model has an all-electric version powered by Altairnano batteries.[17]
  • Urban Aeronautics' X-Hawk[18] is a VTOL aircraft which operates much like a tandem rotor helicopter, however it doesn't have the exposed rotors which make helicopters dangerous for personal use. This is accomplished by containing the rotors in large 'ducts' which make up most of the body of the craft; the requisite decrease in rotor size also decreases fuel efficiency. The X-Hawk is being promoted for rescue and utility functions. It is scheduled to be available for about $3 million around 2010.
  • MACRO Industries – SkyRider[19] is a prototype of a flying car developed by MACRO Industries, Inc. Lighter than the Moller Skycar.
  • MotoPOD LLC,[20] advocates the combined use of airplanes and motorcycles to achieve door-to-door transportation. The company has developed a Motorcycle Pod that allows pilots to carry a street-legal motorcycle beneath their airplane. After landing, it takes only a few minutes to remove the motorcycle, unfold the handlebars and ride away. The company believes this modular solution will appeal to pilots who currently enjoy airplanes and motorcycles separately.
  • PAL-V Europe BV: the PAL-V ONE[21] is a hybrid of a gyrocopter with a car. It has 3 wheels and a top speed of 200 km/h (124 mph) on land and air. It can run on petrol, biodisel or bio-ethanol and will cost $US75 000. The vehicle has a very short take of and vertical landing capability. At less than 70 decibels it is quieter than a helicopter due to the slower rotation of the main rotor. The PAL-V ONE has one seat.
  • The Volante Aircraft.[22] This is a modular design, in development. The flying module attaches to the driving module for flight, while when detached, the driving module is roadable.
  • The Wolff AeroCycle.[23] is a motorcycle that can have the airplane parts attached in order to fly, and then detached to drive on the road.
  • The Switchblade,[24] by SAMSON MOTORWORKS LLC is a three-wheel concept with scissor wings. First introduced at AirVenture 2008, the Switchblade is to utilize a single Wankel rotary engine and ducted fan to keep the propeller out of harm's way on the ground. The wheels and propeller are to be powered by the same engine, but wheel-power only to be utilized on the ground. Development is ongoing at DAR Corp of Lawrence, Kansas, with flying prototype targeted for 2010. A predicted top speed of 110 mph (180 km/h) on the ground is nearly as fast as the anticipated 150 mph (240 km/h) in the air. No parts are left at the airport after conversion from aircraft to ground vehicle, as the main wing and tail retract into the vehicle body. The vehicle leans into the turns on the ground, to impart the feeling of being 'flown' on the ground as well.
  • The I-TEC 'Maverick' Flying Dune Buggy was designed as an off-road vehicle that could unfurl an advanced parachute and then travel by air over impassable terrain when roadways were no longer usable. Designed by the Indigenous People’s Technology and Education Center (I-TEC) of Florida, a Christian ministry, the 1100-pound 'Maverick' vehicle is powered by a 128 hp (95 kW) engine that can also drive a five-bladed pusher propeller. It was initially conceived of in order to help minister to remote Amazon rainforest communities, but will also be marketed for visual pipeline inspection and other similar activities in desolate areas or difficult terrain.[25]
  • The Aerocar 2000 is a modular design currently in development by Ed Sweeney, owner of one of Moulton Taylor's Aerocars.
  • The Plane Driven PD-1 Roadable Glastar is a modification to the Glastar Sportsman GS-2 to make a practical roadable aircraft. The approach is novel in that it uses a mostly stock aircraft with a modified landing gear "pod" that carries the engine for road propulsion. The wings fold along the side, and the main landing gear and engine pod slide aft in driving configuration to compensate for the rearward center of gravity with the wings folded, and provide additional stability for road travel.[26]
  • The iCar 101 has extensible cylindrical wings which spin to provide lift due to the Magnus effect.[27]
  • The Scaled Composites Model 367 BiPod is a developmental hybrid using joined fuselages, and twin combustion engines powering four 15kw electric propellers.

[edit] Gallery

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Thomas Vinciguerra (April 11, 2009). "Flying Cars: An Idea Whose Time Has Never Come". New York Times. 
  3. ^ Popular Science: Looking back at Henry Ford's Flivver: A plane-car for the man of average means, December 2001
  4. ^ "Plane Sheds Wing To Run On Ground" Popular Science, May 1937
  5. ^ "Tailless Flivver Plane Has Pusher Propeller" Popular Science,May 1934, rare photos in article
  6. ^ "Terrafugia Tapped for DARPA Project". Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  7. ^ "Terrafugia, Inc". Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  8. ^ "Terrafugia ready for road, flight testing". 2008-08-02. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  9. ^ Haines, Thomas B.. "AOPA Online: First roadable airplane takes flight". Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  10. ^ "Terrafugia - Transition FAQ". 
  11. ^ "". Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  12. ^ "StrongMobile "Magic Dragon" Flying Car Project". Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  13. ^ LaBiche Aerospace: The FSC-1
  14. ^ "Skyblazer Flying Car – a Roadable aircraft". Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  15. ^ "Transforming Transportation". Milner Motors. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  16. ^
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ "Urban Aeronautics". Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  19. ^ "SkyRider Main Page". Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  20. ^ "MotoPOD LLC Homepage". Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  21. ^ "PAL-V". PAL-V. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  22. ^ "Flying Car from". Volante Aircraft. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  23. ^ "The Wolff AeroCycle". The Wolff AeroCycle. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  24. ^ "Switchblade". Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  25. ^ Logan Ward, 10 Most Brilliant Innovators of 2009: I-TEC’s Flying Dune Buggy, Popular Mechanics, November 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
  26. ^ Budd Davisson (October 2010). "The PD-1 Roadable Glastar". Sport Aviation. 
  27. ^ "About the iCar 101". Retrieved 2011-04-25. 

[edit] External links

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Personal air vehicle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A personal air vehicle or PAV, also personal aerial vehicle, is a class of light general aviation aircraft which meets design and performance goals intended to make flying as commonplace as driving. NASA, in 2005, refined the definition of a PAV in the fifth Centennial Challenge initiative, which it funds in conjunction with the CAFE Foundation.



[edit] Basic premise

The fundamental premise of this technology is to make a reduction in the skills required to operate an aircraft. The goal being a “highway in the sky” scenario where an individual is able to fly from point to point with the ease of driving an automobile.

[edit] A new mode of transportation

Currently the doorstep-to-doorstep average speed for cars is 35 mph. In the greater Los Angeles area, this speed is predicted to degrade to 22 mph by year 2020. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) states that 6.7 billion gallons of gasoline are wasted in traffic jams each year.
A future system of travel by PAVs avoids air traffic jams and can help to relieve those on highways[citation needed].

[edit] PAV definition outline according to NASA

  • Seats 2 to 6 passengers.
  • 150–200 mph (240–320 km/h) cruising speed.
  • Quiet.
  • Safe.
  • Comfortable.
  • Reliable.
  • Able to be flown by anyone with a driver’s license.
  • As affordable as travel by car or airliner.
  • Near all-weather capability enabled by synthetic vision systems.
  • Highly fuel efficient (able to use alternative fuels).
  • 800 miles (1,300 km) range.
  • Provide "door-to-door" travel capabilities, via vehicle roadability, or small residential airfields or vertiports with only a short walk from the aircraft to the final destination.

[edit] Barriers to PAV vision

A pure Synthetic Vision System infrastructure does not exist for general aviation aircraft. Current implementations of "Glass Cockpits" are now being adopted by general aircraft manufactures such as Cirrus Aircraft, Piper, Cessna, and Beechcraft.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) infrastructure is not currently capable of handling the increase in aircraft traffic that would be generated by PAVs. The FAA is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System targeted for 2025 to expand and completely transform the current aged system. See FAA NGATS Modeling by NASA and others have shown that PAV's using new smaller community airports would reduce traffic into larger airports serving the commercial fleet.
Of the two methods proposed for providing “door-to-door” capabilities, only the roadable option can be achieved utilizing existing airport facilities and ordinary roads. Currently, the only vehicles able to legally take off and land from a residential street are life-flight helicopters via special permission granted by the FAA on a case-by-case basis. In order to meet the goals set by NASA, thousands of small residential airports would be required.
Community noise generated by aircraft is a factor for residential PAVs. Without lower noise levels enabling residential landing capabilities, any PAV must still take off and land at an FAA controlled airport or private airfield, where the higher sound levels of operating aircraft have been approved.
Studies have been made in making helicopters and jets less noisy, but noise levels remain high. In 2005 a simple method of reducing noise was identified: keep aircraft at a higher altitude during landing, called Continuous Descent Approach.[1]
The European Union is funding a 3-leg 4.2m programme (under the Seventh Framework Programme) to study technologies and impacts for PAVs in a Personal Air Transport System; Human-aircraft interaction, Automation of aerial systems in cluttered environments, and Exploring the socio-technological environment.[2][3]

[edit] Progress

Fulfillment of the NASA vision for PAVs is likely to unfold over several decades. Several vehicle types exist which strive to meet the PAV definition:
Most vehicles in the above category can not yet perform all of the requirements set by NASA. However, some vehicles falling under the above have already set-down fair all-round performance in all of NASA's requirements. Hybrid forms of the vehicle types above can also be useful. Some hybrid forms that exist are:

[edit] Driverless PAV's

Besides the fabrication of personal air vehicles, the creation of driverless systems for PAV's is also being researched. First off, synthetic vision electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS) as Highway in the sky (HITS) makes it much easier to control aircraft.[5] Also, Phantom Works is working on designing a system that allows to automate PAV's. The PAV's are designated their own "lanes" in the sky, hereby ensuring the avoidance of possible collisions. In addition, the different PAV's are also capable of detecting each other and communicating with each other, further decreasing the risk of collisions.[6]

[edit] PAV challenge

NASA Langley has researched and prototyped the necessary PAV technologies and has dedicated the largest cash prize in the history of GA to the PAV that can demonstrate the best overall combination of performance. The PAV flight competition for this prize, known as the first annual PAV Challenge, was held Aug 4-12, 2007 and hosted the CAFE Foundation in Santa Rosa, CA.
In 2008 the challenge was renamed as the General Aviation Technology Challenge.
The new prizes were:
  • The Community Noise Prize ($150,000)
  • The Green Prize ($50,000) (MPG)
  • The Aviation Safety Prize ($50,000) (Handling, eCFI)
  • The CAFE 400 Prize ($25,000) (Speed)
  • The Quietest LSA Prize ($10,000)
The winners were:
  • Community Noise Lambada N109UA $20,000
  • Green Prize no winner n/a
  • CAFE Safety Pipistrel N2471P $50,000
  • CAFE 400 Pipistrel N2471P $2,000
  • Quietest LSA Lambada N109UA $10,000
  • Shortest Takeoff Pipistrel N2471P $3,750
  • Best Angle of Climb Pipistrel N2471P $3,750
  • Best Glide Ratio at 100 MPH Flightdesign CTSW N135CT $3,750
  • Cabin Noise (tie) Lambada N109UA Pipistrel N2471P $3,750 ($1,875 each)

[edit] Other notable designs

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Reducing Airplane Noise". Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  2. ^ Czyzewski, Andrew. [ Personal flying vehicles project aims to end road congestion] The Engineer (magazine), 22 June 2011. Accessed: 26 July 2011.
  3. ^ myCopter European Union, 2011. Accessed: 26 July 2011.
  4. ^ Bellows, Alan (2006-03-31). "Gravity powered plane". Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  5. ^ Harry Kraemer (2003-12-01). "Highway in the sky". Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  6. ^ "Boeing's Phantom Works working on PAV traffic system". Retrieved 2011-04-25. 

[edit] External links

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