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Sunday, July 31, 2011 (BFO) is a way to boot hosts in order to run install or other types of media via the network.

I use to mess around with PXE Booting OS's over my Local Network and it was kind of fun for a while. And not as hard as it seemed at first. But even with 100mbps, most Linux Operating Systems run faster on CD, DVD or better yet, installed on the Hard Drive of the Machine. Especially on an older slower Machines. I've tried out other Linux Internet Install Systems. Like, and GPXE. But, they were too slow at Downloading the needed files to Boot, for me and I do have a fairly fast Internet Connection, 18mbps. Even on something small like DSL Linux!:O

Still, I tried out BFO in Virtual Box and it looks very interesting. I tried out "Restore Fedora" for Fedora 14. Just to see how long it would take to Download the needed files. It took less than 5 minutes to get to where I could start Restoring a System. I do have a fairly fast Internet Connection though, 18mbps. I stopped after the Drive Scanning Portion of the "Restore". Since I was running in a Virtual Machine and didn't really have a Fedora Installation to Restore. You can do other things too, like Install Fedora. Any version from 13 to 15 in this version of BFO. I want to put BFO on a CD, just in case I need it one day. Because the Fedora CD's and DVD's haven't had a Restore Function since Fedora 11 or so. But, BFO is so small, at 670Kb... that's right! Kilobytes not Megabytes! And I don't want to waste a whole CD for such a small amount of Data!:O I know... I'm just like that!;) I always Burn my CD's Open, so that I can add Data later. What good it does me, I haven't quite figured out yet. Since, you can only Boot from the first Track on a CD anyway! I've spent some time trying!:O But, at least I could add some RPM's or other files I need for my Live Systems or Installs when I'm away from home and not able to get Online. I could put BFO on a Multi-Boot USB. But, I only have one Computer that will even Boot to a USB Drive. And I have Fedora 13 and Fuduntu on UBS's already and never really use them. So, I'm back to wishing I could figure out how to make a Multi-boot CD or DVD. I read something about how to do that with Puppy Linux, if I remember right. But I haven't tried it yet...

Don (BFO) is a way to boot hosts in order to run install or other types of media via the network. It works similarly to a pxeboot environment.

BFO is based on the work of the BKO - To download BFO please select BFO Download along the left side menu.

Frequently-Asked Questions
How do I use it?

First download one of the available BFO specific images. You have a choice of ISO (DVD/CD), USB, Floppy and lkrn images. Then write that image to an appropriate medium. Next boot from that medium. After that you're using BFO! Use your keyboard to select menus to run diagnostics, or boot a Fedora installer or rescue mode.
Can I use it with grub?

Yes! Just run the following commands as root wget -O/boot/bfo.lkrn grubby --add-kernel=/boot/bfo.lkrn --title="Boot BFO" reboot

How does it work?

BFO was started by (BKO) and combines a series of recent technologies to produce a new boot stack. The glue that holds everything together is gpxe. Users familiar with pxe will find gpxe very familiar. Latest versions support several protocols beyond just tftp. We are using http to transfer files around. The basic steps are as follows:
Download the media fitting your preferred boot method.
burn ISO images to a CD-R or DVD-R
write USB image for a USB stick
write Floppy image to a 3.5 inch HD floppy
lkrn image for PXE booting, grub booting and in conjunction with kexec (c.f.: pxkxc)
Boot from the medium you created.
It will first configure network via DHCP.
After network is configured, it will go out to our website and download the menus and other prompts from us
Those boot menus will then be displayed to the user for selection. After a selection (like install Fedora 12) the regular boot process takes over just as it would had you booted from normal local media.
Why should I use BFO?

The BFO downloads are very small and once you have them, you'll rarely have to download more. Even as more versions of Fedora come out, you just boot from your image and they will appear. Users with fast internet connections will have the best experience with BFO. They basically replace having to regularly download large ISO images and burn them to disk.
What is required?

For all image types, you need a working DHCP in the network you use it from as well as HTTP internet access. To use the ISO, a CD/DVD burner. To use the USB image, a USB stick. Floppy and lkrn images are also available.
Does BFO replace the installer or anaconda?

No. BFO is also not part of Anaconda. BFO is a way to load the installer via network. Normally users download a large ISO image that contains all of the installer bits. BFO is a smaller booting method that downloads the installer bits at runtime. In theory with BFO one iso download can install all future versions of Fedora.
What about the Live CDs?

At this time booting Live CDs is experimental and not available. We hope to have them available soon.
Why won't BFO boot?

BFO uses gpxe so it's not actually booting a Linux kernel at first. As such, some drivers and devices may not be supported. If this is the case for you please check upstream at for bug updates, etc. If you feel a bug or device is supported but not working in BFO, contact:

Go there... (BFO) is a way to boot hosts in order to run install or other types of media via the network

FAQs -

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Download Accelerator Plus (DAP) - Free Download Manager

Download Accelerator Plus (DAP)

With DAP You can click on Download Later and then start the downloads of all the songs or whatever kind of files you need to download, Pics, Program. That way, you don’t have to just set there waiting. I still use it on my Windows Systems, even though I have high speed now. DAP - Download Accelerator Plus is Freeware, also known as Nagware, since it just has Adds in the top of it's window and constantly reminds you that You Should get the Paid Version. No SpyWare in though. It’s ok there. I use to use DAP most of all back in 1998 to 2004, when I ran Windows 98 and XP. But the later versions, while working just as well, began embedding themselves into your Web Browser more than I liked. Not doing anything bad. But making it very hard to completely uninstall DAP and it's Browser Plug-ins. So, unless you are sure you want to keep DAP or go through some manual steps to get rid of it. I would try another Download Accelerator first... But, it does work well, if you don't mind the draw backs of the Software...


Go there...

Connectfusion - Download Accelerator

ConnectFusion Download Accelerator

ConnectFusion is a very fast open source download manager. It will accelerate your downloads from the Internet and resume broken connections. ConnectFusion includes an easy-to-use interface and its installation does not interfere with the normal behavior of your browser.ConnectFusion is 100% free, never expires, and does not contain any spyware or advertisement. Its source is freely available to any one who wants to inspect or modify it
  • Accelerate downloads for different types of Internet connections - dial-up, cable, DSL / ADSL, satellite, T1, etc.
  • Supports simultaneous connections. Up to 8 connections for the same file. This method will speed up your downloads significantly. Stop and resume broken downloads. Recover from a dropped Internet connection.
  • Does not interfere with the default behavior of web browser.
  • Supports batch downloads from the Internet. Perform batch downloads by queuing multiple files and leaving your system totally unattended.
  • Drag & drop features. Drag a link into ConnectFusion to download. Drag a file from ConnectFusion into a folder to save.
  • Well designed interface. Compact, Stable and Easy to use.
  • Totally free. Never expires. No spyware. No advertisement.
  • Open Sourced. Inspect the code and compile it yourself for the ultimate peace of mind.

Go there...

I use to use ConnectFusion some back when I ran WinXP (2002 to 2004). It is still around and was a good Download Accelerator. But you do have to "Drag and Drop" the link to the file you want to download manually. Unlike other Download Accelerators, which can Grab them Automatically when you Click on them in your Web Browser.


Go there...

In 2004, Shareaza became free and open source as its creator moved onto other pursuits.

Shareaza - Bringing P2P Together

Release Date: May 29th, 2011

Shareaza has been released! DC++ and Gnutella updates, enhanced anti-spam protection, multi-file download merging, and other fixes and improvements are included in this release. Shareaza was first released in mid-2002 with rapid development from its creator. In 2004, Shareaza became free and open source as its creator moved onto other pursuits. The project has faced internal and external battles at times, but it continues to survive and thrive in an increasingly hostile environment.

Go there...

This site was created as a supliment to the official Shareaza Open-Source Project web site. It has also become something of a security center for information about frauds and about sites that offer incorrect downloads and links to fraudulent Shareaza sites. After the domain (web site) was taken over by Discordia, a great deal of confusion has occured among past Shareaza users in regard to where they can go for official project information. People are still to this day visiting the site (now under the control of Discordia, as are other titles like BearShare and iMesh) and downloading malicious and fraudulent software under the assumption that it is the official Shareaza software. It is not. Other web sites have sprung up in a sort of feeding frenzy to malign, discredit and profit from the Shareaza name, which was (and is) enormously popular. This site will direct Shareaza users and fans to official sites, resources and downloads. If you would like to understand more about what is happening to the Internet community in regard to Shareaza and other products, see this article.


I use to like Shareaza, back in 2004. When I was running WinXP. And before I discovered Linux!:) It was a great Download and File Sharing App. Easy to use. But also very easy to set to your own preferences. I did run into a few Virus Infected files though. And of all things... I found an infected file by searching for my own music, with the Shareaza file search function. I write and sing and have my music on my Web Site for free Downloads... The file I found was named something like It's been a long time, so I can't remember the name for sure now. It was Not, of course on my Web Site. But I downloaded it to see what it was. I found out!:O With a Big Avast Audio Warning a Virus Has Been Detected!:O I found a few other infected files that way too. So, I learned to just stay away from doing file searches on the P2P Networks. And I did Report it to the Shareaza group too. Anyway... I think that Shareaza is a great File Downloading and File Sharing App. Just be careful what you download and where you download it from... As Always... and Check all Files that you Download before Opening Them! I try to always Scan the files I download in Linux too. I have to do it manually, in Linux. Real Time Virus Scanning in Linux is hard to Setup. But it's really not hard to just Scan files and directories in Linux manually. I use ClamAV with the KlamAV GUI App to make it easy to do.


Shareaza became free and open source as its creator moved onto other pursuits.
shareaza at DuckDuckGo
Download Shareaza
Shareaza - Bringing P2P Together

FaceSpace - If Facebook and Myspace Merged - The Oatmeal

This is a Funny - Sad... True to life Portrayal of People on "Social
Networks" on the Internet Today!:O


FaceSpace - If Facebook and Myspace Merged - The Oatmea, Go there...

Saturday, July 30, 2011

How to Install Solar Powered Outdoor Lights and Lighting • Ron Hazelton Online

How to Install Solar Powered Outdoor Lights and Lighting • Ron Hazelton Online

  1. Choose from the many shapes and styles of solar-powered lights available at your home improvement store. These are environmentally friendly and nearly cost-free to operate, in addition to being easy to install. Solar-powered models absorb energy from sunlight, convert it into electrical energy, and store it in rechargeable solar batteries. At dusk, a small photo-cell fixture turns the lights on. The lights remain illuminated until the batteries run out of charge or the sensor detects sufficient daylight to turn them off. When the sun comes up, the batteries are recharged.
Go there read more and see video...

These are those lites that the neighbors have, that you like so much...


About ESD - Electro Static Discharge - Transwiki


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[edit] How to keep ESD out of electronics

[edit] In memory of Don Anderson who taught me much about anti-static plastics

[edit] ESD Electro Static Discharge

Everyone who works with electronics has heard about static damage. Unfortunately, there is often as much miss-information as there is hard fact. First of all static electricity does no harm; it is not until there is a discharge (ESD) that we have to worry. ( It is the 'D' in ESD that blows holes in electronic gates!) Sadly, a lot of snake-oil products are sold to make you feel like you have taken care of 'The static problem'. All that you need to keep the marketing types from preying on you whether you are a hobbyist, technician or engineer, is an understanding based in science. Once you realize that the laws of physics are not suspended for ESD (electrostatic Discharge) you will find that you already know most of the basics.

[edit] What is static electricity?

Static electricity is electricity that is static; that is electricity that doesn't move. When you walk across a carpet on a dry winter day, you build up a static charge. As your shoes rub on the carpet there is a net wiping off of electrons that gives your body a potential that is different to ground. If the air were more humid, the charge would bleed off rapidly but on a dry winter day the charge stays on the surface of your skin for a few seconds. Static electricity is a surface phenomenon. The more surface area the greater the charge stored.

[edit] What is electrostatic discharge?

Static electricity doesn't do any damage until it is discharged - and is then called electrostatic discharge or ESD. Quite simply, electrostatic discharge is a spark.

When you walk across the carpet on a cold winter day, the wiping motion of your feet produces a charge separation that is collected and distributed evenly about the surface of your moist and salty (thus conductive) skin conductive skin. When you reach for the doorknob a spark jumps from your conductive skin to the conductive doorknob. If you felt the spark, you had a potential of at least 3500 volts. Every day, when you touch conductive items, small sparks are produced that can't be felt yet have enough energy to damage electronics.

[edit] Requirements for electrostatic discharge

Two things are required to allow ESD:

  • A charge separation.
  • Two associated conductors that collect charge and are brought together initiating the discharge.

Knowing these two requirements puts us in position to rationally tackle the job of preventing ESD. The first requirement to have ESD is that there is a static charge separation; the second requirement is that there is a conductor (for the purposes of this discussion the only meaningful ones are metal, metallic carbon and our skin's sweat layer). ESD always occurs between two conductive surfaces - If you touch the enamel paint (which is non-conductive) on your computer cabinet, no spark will form. You might have noticed that over the years electronic products have gone from having spark producing exposed conductive metal cabinets, to having non conductive materials on the outside that prevents ESD. Designers have figured out that it takes a spark to have ESD, so modern electronic products now have their conductive shielding layers buried in insulating plastic.

[edit] What to keep out of your work area

[edit] Static generators

One way to prevent ESD is to prevent static build up from occurring. Plastics when moved are the worst and most common static generators. Keep all plastics (with the exception of anti-static plastics) out of your work area. This means plastic bags, vinyl report covers, white foam packing material, clear plastic wrappers, clear bubble wrap, Formica table tops, carpeting, plastic bins and packing tape have to go or be treated with an anti-static dip or spray. Keeping static producers out of your work area is the most important step to reduce ESD damage!

There are also anti-static plastics. These plastics won't form a static charge on them because of special additives in the plastic. Pink polyethylene bags are a common example. The gray metallic looking bags should be avoided unless the metalized layer is buried in plastic to keep it from generating a spark. The anti-static plastics have a surface that dissipates static by bleeding the charge off without sparking. A chip or circuit board in a pink-poly bag is safe as long as you touch the bag before you touch the part.

[edit] Conductors

The above requirements to produce ESD also include conductors. If we eliminate unnecessary conductors, we further reduce the possibility of ESD. Just like a doorknob, a metalized bag it is a conductor and can make a spark. (If you can see through a metalized bag, it isn't an effective RFI shield either. You can test this by placing an AM transistor radio inside the bag - if it keeps playing it isn't shielded - the reason these are so popular is because they look hi tech).

Keeping out all non-essential conductors includes metallic carbon. Black lacquered cardboard is conductive - why not use plain cardboard? This means no black-conductive mats, black plastic packaging, besides exposed metabolized bags.

[edit] What is wrong with volume conductive (usually black) plastics?

Antistatic plastics are carefully formulated to not generate charge separations. Black plastic, filled with metallic carbon, is volume conductive. You can put an ohmmeter across these different plastics and see that the antistatics are insulating while the black filled plastics are conductive.

The volume conductive plastic, instead of protecting, can actually produce ESD. The black volume conductive acts as one of the conductors from our list of requirements to produce ESD! The parts leads can act as the other conductor, Thus, if a charge separation exists you can damage a part just by placing it in a conductive bag!

[edit] Lets get scientific -- ESD detectors


About ESD
PCH Search & Win: About ESD... I know that when you are...
ESD - Transwiki
Electrostatic Discharge | Let's Make Robots!
Static Electricity News- ESD and Anti Static Sheet and Tile Flooring

Friday, July 29, 2011

IR communications tutorial - Hack a Day

IR communications tutorial

posted Jul 29th 2011 11:58am by
filed under: classic hacks

After seeing our communications via light post , reader [Chris] dropped this handy little link in our inbox. A very good tutorial about using infrared to enable communications between 2 pic micro controllers.

The tutorial covers all the parts you will need, physical wiring and schematics with notes detailing each section of the circuit. It then goes on into basic IR theory, and a simplified push button circuit you can make to see that it is, in fact, working. Once you get the exercise built on some breadboards, he does some software and get some results from it all.

Now in the end this little device was hitting in the neighborhood of 9600 baud, but had to be pretty darn close to each other with a direct line of sight. These  are often accepted as a couple of drawbacks to IR technologies. IR, which has never really vanished, is in use on a lot of devices though. The more you know the better off you are.

Join us after the break for a quick video!


5 Responses to IR communications tutorial

  • Bogdan says:

    You usually do this by modulating the emitting light with a certain frequency and look for that frequency at the receiving end. It’s not more complicated than this.
    At the emitter side of things you pulsate the light at the frequency of, say, 36KHz and you use a special receiver such as a TSOP2736. Data rate with this system is lower, up to about 2kbps, but usually it is not a problem. Alternative way is to use full IRDA devices.

    The method presented here is quite limited, and transmitting data like this without modulation is done strictly where you can position the emitter and transmitter at close range and without interference from ambient light. And btw, this can be done with regular leds….

  • HHH says:

    Seems great, definitely worth checking out!

  • Bogdan is completely correct: transmitting data without modulation like this will produce garbage instead of data in (1) daylight, (2) rooms with moving lights like a projector, (3) links over 10 inches or so, and (4) any other real life situation. A simple fix: AND transmitted uart data with a PWM 39 KHz carrier to produce modulated bitstream. then use a 38 KHz IR receiver to receive it – it will produce a MUCH more resilient communications method.

  • BiOzZ says:

    Does it send just a pulse or a command?

  • gcat122 says:

    This is a great intro. For anyone that takes it further there is a hint that might help- the gain of specialized receivers is boosted a huge amount for sensitivity but too much “ON” time during transmission will back off the gain and scramble reception. Check the specs of IR receivers for duty cycle and data burst length limits.

  • Go there...

    Wireless Infrared Link Communication

    Video Link....

    IR communications tutorial
    IR communications tutorial - Hack a Day
    Microcontroller communications using flashing lights - Hack a Day
    Wireless Infrared Link - Parts List | PyroElectro - News, Projects & Tutorials
    ‪Wireless Infrared Link Communication‬‏ - YouTube
    I have a couple of old TV Remotes. Hmmm...



    391 Places for Free Books Online

    391 Places for Free Books Online