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Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Brainwave entrainment - Dream Machines

Remember the Strobe lights from the 60's? Well, I guess the first one... I was not familiar with any of this. Just goes to show Ya... You learn something new, every day!:)


Rich Decibels disrupts brainwaves using an Arduino

Audio-visual brain entrainment using an Arduino

There are some interesting theories about the ability of low frequency light and sound to alter brain states. I created the Rich Decibels Brainwave Disruptor to investigate some of the theories.
Electrical activity in the brain is rhythmic. The frequency of this rhythm depends on the state the brain is in: an active, alert state correlates to rhythms in the range of 30-100Hz. As brain activity reduces in frequency, so the brain state changes: 8-12Hz is associated with relaxation, 4-7Hz with meditation, and below 4Hz indicates deep sleep.
The concept behind ‘brainwave entrainment‘ is the idea that you can induce different brain states by causing brainwave frequencies to fall into step with external stimulus.
My device generates this external stimulus with binaural beats, by creating two tones whose frequencies are separated slightly, along with flashing lights and a pulsating audio filter.
The handsome case was designed in Sketchup, and laser-cut in my Personal Factory. The text is engraved and then filled with white-out fluid. Under the hood is an Arduino Uno, and two interface boards I designed.

Hack Your Brain – Make Video Podcast

This weekend, learn how to hack your brain by making Mitch Altman’s Brain Machine! It flashes LEDs into your eyes and beeps sounds into your ears to make your brain waves sync up into beta, alpha, theta, and delta brainwaves!



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Homemade dreamachine at rest (not spinning), lit internally.
The dreamachine (or dream machine) is a stroboscopic flicker device that produces visual stimuli. Artist Brion Gysin and William S. Burroughs's "systems adviser" Ian Sommerville created the dreamachine after reading William Grey Walter's book, The Living Brain.[1][2]



[edit] History

In the dreamachine's original form, a dreamachine is made from a cylinder with slits cut in the sides. The cylinder is placed on a record turntable and rotated at 78 or 45 revolutions per minute. A light bulb is suspended in the center of the cylinder and the rotation speed allows the light to come out from the holes at a constant frequency of between 8 and 13 pulses per second. This frequency range corresponds to alpha waves, electrical oscillations normally present in the human brain while relaxing.[2]
The Dreamachine is the subject of the National Film Board of Canada 2008 feature documentary film FLicKeR by Nik Sheehan.[3]

[edit] Use

A dreamachine is "viewed" with the eyes closed: the pulsating light stimulates the optical nerve and alters the brain's electrical oscillations. The user experiences increasingly bright, complex patterns of color behind their closed eyelids. The patterns become shapes and symbols, swirling around, until the user feels surrounded by colors. It is claimed that using a dreamachine allows one to enter a hypnagogic state.[4] This experience may sometimes be quite intense, but to escape from it, one needs only to open one's eyes.[1]
A dreamachine may be dangerous for people with photosensitive epilepsy or other nervous disorders. It is thought that one out of 10,000 adults will experience a seizure while viewing the device; about twice as many children will have a similar ill effect.[5]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b Cecil, Paul (March 2000). "Everything is Permuted". Flickers of the Dreamachine. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  2. ^ a b Century, Dan (December 2000). "Brion Gysin and his Wonderful Dreamachine". Legends Magazine. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  3. ^ Film Web site
  4. ^ Kerekes, David (2003). Headpress 25: William Burroughs & the Flicker Machine. Headpress. p. 13. ISBN 1900486261. 
  5. ^ Allen, Mark (2005-01-20). "Décor by Timothy Leary". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 

[edit] References

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

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Brainwave entrainment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brainwave entrainment

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Brainwave entrainment or "brainwave synchronization," is any practice that aims to cause brainwave frequencies to fall into step with a periodic stimulus having a frequency corresponding to the intended brain-state (for example, to induce sleep), usually attempted with the use of specialized software. It purportedly depends upon a "frequency following" response on the assumption that the human brain has a tendency to change its dominant EEG frequency towards the frequency of a dominant external stimulus.[citation needed] Such a stimulus is often aural, as in the case of binaural or monaural beats and isochronic tones, or else visual, as with a dreamachine, a combination of the two with a mind machine, or even electromagnetic radiation.[citation needed]



[edit] History

Enthusiasts of brainwave entrainment claim that it has been noted or used in one form or another for centuries (long before the invention of EEG equipment), from shamanistic societies' use of drum beats to Ptolemy noting in 200 AD the effects of flickering sunlight generated by a spinning wheel. In the 1930s and '40s, with then-new EEG equipment and strobe lights, William Grey Walter performed some of the first scientific research on the subject.[1] Later, in the 1960s and '70s, interest in altered states led some artists to become interested in the subject, most notably Brion Gysin who, along with a Cambridge math student, invented the Dreamachine.[2] From the 1970s to date there have been numerous studies and various machines built that combine light and sound. These efforts were aided by continued development of micro-circuitry and other electronic breakthroughs which allowed for ever more sophisticated equipment. One of the more frequently noted scientific results claimed for brainwave entrainment was the discovery of binaural beats, published in Scientific American in 1973 by Gerald Oster.[3] However, Oster's research actually makes no mention of brainwaves. With the development of isochronic tones by Arturo Manns, combined with more sophisticated equipment, these discoveries led to many attempts to use claimed brainwave entrainment techniques in the treatment of numerous psychological and physiological conditions.

[edit] Aural entrainment

[edit] Binaural beats

Binaural beats
Binaural beats deserve special mention because of the manner in which the desired frequencies are obtained. Brainwave entrainment may be achieved when audio signals are introduced to the brain causing a response directly related to the frequency of the signal introduced, called binaural beats. Two tones close in frequency generate a beat frequency at the difference of the frequencies, which is generally subsonic. For example, a 495 Hz tone and 505 Hz tone will produce a subsonic 10 Hz beat, roughly in the middle of the alpha range. The "carrier frequency" (e.g., the 500 Hz in the example above), is also said by some to affect the quality of the transformative experience.[citation needed] Note that this effect is achieved without either ear hearing the pulse when headphones are used. Instead, the brain produces the pulse by combining the two tones. Each ear hears only a steady tone. Although some have claimed that these frequencies do provide help in treating certain medical conditions,[4] there is not a wide acceptance by the medical community to adopt the practice of brainwave entrainment for emotional/mental disorders. A fixed, constant frequency of synchronization is less helpful than techniques such as classical neurofeedback or learning meditation, which naturally generate brainwave frequencies that differ from person to person and may vary from minute to minute.[citation needed]

[edit] Monaural beats

Monaural beats
Binaural beats were first discovered in 1839 by H. Dove, a German experimenter. At that time, binaural beats were considered to be a special case of monaural beats. Binaural beats are not the same as monaural beats. Binaural beats are perceived by presenting two different tones at slightly different pitches (or frequencies) separately into each ear. This effect is produced in the brain, not in the ears as with monaural beats. It is produced by the neural output from the ears and created within the olivary body within the brain, in its attempt to "locate" the direction of the sound based on phase.[5]
Only monaural beats are the result of the arithmetic (vector) sum of the waveforms of the two tones as they add or subtract from one another, becoming louder and quieter and louder again.[5]
Monaural and binaural beats are rarely encountered in nature, but in man-made objects, monaural beats occur frequently. For example, two large engines running at slightly different speeds will send "surges" of vibrations through the deck of a ship or jet plane. The lower pitched tone is called the carrier and the upper tone is called the offset.[5]
Monaural beats occur in the open air and external to the ears. For example, when two guitar strings of slightly different frequencies are plucked simultaneously, monaural beats strike the ear as beats and therefore excite the thalamus, an action crucial for entrainment.[citation needed] Binaural beats played through loudspeakers become monaural beats.[5]
To hear monaural beats, both tones must be of the same amplitude. However binaural beats can be heard when the tones have different amplitudes. They can even be heard if one of the tones is below the hearing threshold. Noise reduces the perceived volume of monaural beats whereas noise actually increases the loudness of binaural beats.[6]

[edit] Isochronic tones

Isochronic tones
"Isochronic tones are evenly spaced tones which turn on and off quickly."[7]

[edit] Audio–visual entrainment

Audio–visual entrainment (AVE), a subset of brainwave entrainment, uses flashes of lights and pulses of tones to guide the brain into various states of brainwave activity. AVE devices are often termed light and sound machines or mind machines. Altering brainwave activity may aid in the treatment of psychological and physiological disorders.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

[edit] External links

Go there...

Brainwave entrainment
Blow your mind with the Brainwave Disruptor - Hack a Day
Rich Decibels disrupts brainwaves using an Arduino « Ponoko – Blog
Brainwave entrainment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dreamachine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
MAKE | Hack Your Brain – Make Video Podcast
MiniPOV3 - Unending POV
File:Dreamachine still lit.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brainwave-based assistive technology in the home
YouTube - Mind Controlled EEG Smart House Demonstration
YouTube - Mind Controlled EEG Television Demonstration
Dream Machines - Brainwave Entrainment Pioneers
DonsDeals: Brainwave entrainment - Dream Machines
Dreamachine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
William S. Burroughs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ian Sommerville (technician) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
William Grey Walter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brion Gysin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
DonsDeals: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation project (TMS) - Videos YouTube
DonsDeals: Ben Krasnow: LED mounted in a contact lens for possible virtual / augmented reality displays
William S. Burroughs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ayahuasca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
BEAM robotics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brainwave-based assistive technology w EEG Head Set
IpsiHand: Direct Recoupling of Intention and Movement (Washington University in St. Louis) | RESNA
YouTube - IpsiHand: Direct Recoupling of Intention and Movement
RESNA | Student Design Competition
Brainwave-based assistive technology in the home - Hack a Day
Brain Car Interface - Hack a Day
YouTube - BrainDriver - a mind controlled car
BrainDriver - a mind controlled car
Use iPhone to run yourself over - Hack a Day
YouTube - Beam me up autonomous car
YouTube - iDriver - iPhone remote controlled car 

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