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Saturday, October 8, 2011

From Cyberpunk to Steampunk

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William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy novels are famous early cyberpunk novels.
Cyberpunk is a postmodern and science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life."[1][2] The name is a portmanteau of cybernetics and punk, and was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk," published in 1983.[3][4] It features advanced science, such as information technology and cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.[5] Cyberpunk works are well situated within postmodern literature.[6]
Cyberpunk plots often center on a conflict among hackers, artificial intelligences, and megacorporations, and tend to be set in a near-future Earth, rather than the far-future settings or galactic vistas found in novels such as Isaac Asimov's Foundation or Frank Herbert's Dune.[7] The settings are usually post-industrial dystopias but tend to be marked by extraordinary cultural ferment and the use of technology in ways never anticipated by its creators ("the street finds its own uses for things").[8] Much of the genre's atmosphere echoes film noir, and written works in the genre often use techniques from detective fiction.[9]
"Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who lived on the edge of society in generally dystopic futures where daily life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous datasphere of computerized information, and invasive modification of the human body." – Lawrence Person[10]



[edit] Style and ethos

Primary exponents of the cyberpunk field include William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, and John Shirley.[11]
Many influential films such as Blade Runner and the Matrix trilogy can be seen as prominent examples of the cyberpunk style and theme.[7] Computer games, board games, and role-playing games, such as Cyberpunk 2020 and Shadowrun, often feature storylines that are heavily influenced by cyberpunk writing and movies. Beginning in the early 1990s, some trends in fashion and music were also labeled as cyberpunk. Cyberpunk is also featured prominently in anime,[12] Akira and Ghost in the Shell being among the most notable.[12]

[edit] Setting

Shibuya, Tokyo, described as a "futuristic Times Square" by The New York Times.[13] Of Japan's influence on the genre, William Gibson said, "Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk."[14] Cyberpunk is often set in urbanized, artificial landscapes, and "city lights, receding" was used by Gibson as one of the genre's first metaphors for cyberspace.[15]
Cyberpunk writers tend to use elements from the hard-boiled detective novel, film noir, and postmodernist prose to describe the often nihilistic underground side of an electronic society. The genre's vision of a troubled future is often called the antithesis of the generally utopian visions of the future popular in the 1940s and 1950s. Gibson defined cyberpunk's antipathy towards utopian SF in his 1981 short story "The Gernsback Continuum," which pokes fun at and, to a certain extent, condemns utopian science fiction.[16][17][18]
In some cyberpunk writing, much of the action takes place online, in cyberspace, blurring the border between actual and virtual reality.[19] A typical trope in such work is a direct connection between the human brain and computer systems. Cyberpunk depicts the world as a dark, sinister place with networked computers dominating every aspect of life. Giant, multinational corporations have for the most part replaced governments as centers of political, economic, and even military power.

[edit] Protagonists

Protagonists in cyberpunk writing usually include computer hackers, who are often patterned on the idea of the lone hero fighting injustice, such as Robin Hood.[20] One of the cyberpunk genre's prototype characters is Case, from Gibson's Neuromancer.[21] Case is a "console cowboy," a brilliant hacker who had betrayed his organized criminal partners. Robbed of his talent through a crippling injury inflicted by the vengeful partners, Case unexpectedly receives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to be healed by expert medical care but only if he participates in another criminal enterprise with a new crew.
Like Case, many cyberpunk protagonists are manipulated, placed in situations where they have little or no choice, and although they might see things through, they do not necessarily come out any further ahead than they previously were. These anti-heroes—"criminals, outcasts, visionaries, dissenters and misfits"[22] call to mind the private eye of detective novels. This emphasis on the misfits and the malcontents is the "punk" component of cyberpunk.

[edit] Society and government

Cyberpunk can be intended to disquiet readers and call them to action. It often expresses a sense of rebellion, suggesting that one could describe it as a type of culture revolution in science fiction. In the words of author and critic David Brin:
...a closer look [at cyberpunk authors] reveals that they nearly always portray future societies in which governments have become wimpy and pathetic ...Popular science fiction tales by Gibson, Williams, Cadigan and others do depict Orwellian accumulations of power in the next century, but nearly always clutched in the secretive hands of a wealthy or corporate elite.[23]
Cyberpunk stories have also been seen as fictional forecasts of the evolution of the Internet. The earliest descriptions of a global communications network came long before the World Wide Web entered popular awareness, though not before traditional science-fiction writers such as Arthur C. Clarke and some social commentators such as James Burke began predicting that such networks would eventually form.[24]

[edit] Media

[edit] Literature

The science-fiction editor Gardner Dozois is generally acknowledged as the person who popularized the use of the term "cyberpunk" as a kind of literature, although Minnesota writer Bruce Bethke coined the term in 1980 for his short story "Cyberpunk," which was published in the November 1983 issue of Amazing Science Fiction Stories.[25] The term was quickly appropriated as a label to be applied to the works of William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan and others. Of these, Sterling became the movement's chief ideologue, thanks to his fanzine Cheap Truth. John Shirley wrote articles on Sterling and Rucker's significance.[26]
William Gibson with his novel Neuromancer (1984) is likely the most famous writer connected with the term cyberpunk. He emphasized style, a fascination with surfaces, and atmosphere over traditional science-fiction tropes. Regarded as ground-breaking and sometimes as "the archetypal cyberpunk work,"[10] Neuromancer was awarded the Hugo, Nebula, and Philip K. Dick Awards. After Gibson's popular debut novel, Count Zero (1986) and Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988) followed. According to the Jargon File, "Gibson's near-total ignorance of computers and the present-day hacker culture enabled him to speculate about the role of computers and hackers in the future in ways hackers have since found both irritatingly naïve and tremendously stimulating."[27]
Early on, cyberpunk was hailed as a radical departure from science-fiction standards and a new manifestation of vitality.[28] Shortly thereafter, however, many critics arose to challenge its status as a revolutionary movement. These critics said that the SF New Wave of the 1960s was much more innovative as far as narrative techniques and styles were concerned.[29] Furthermore, while Neuromancer's narrator may have had an unusual "voice" for science fiction, much older examples can be found: Gibson's narrative voice, for example, resembles that of an updated Raymond Chandler, as in his novel The Big Sleep (1939).[28] Others noted that almost all traits claimed to be uniquely cyberpunk could in fact be found in older writers' works—often citing J. G. Ballard, Philip K. Dick, Harlan Ellison, Stanisław Lem, Samuel R. Delany, and even William S. Burroughs.[28] For example, Philip K. Dick's works contain recurring themes of social decay, artificial intelligence, paranoia, and blurred lines between objective and subjective realities, and the influential cyberpunk movie Blade Runner is based on one of his books. Humans linked to machines are found in Pohl and Kornbluth's Wolfbane (1959) and Roger Zelazny's Creatures of Light and Darkness (1968).
In 1994, scholar Brian Stonehill suggested that Thomas Pynchon's 1973 novel Gravity's Rainbow "not only curses but precurses what we now glibly dub cyberspace."[30] Other important predecessors include Alfred Bester's two most celebrated novels, The Demolished Man and The Stars My Destination,[31] as well as Vernor Vinge's novella True Names.[32]
Science-fiction writer David Brin describes cyberpunk as "the finest free promotion campaign ever waged on behalf of science fiction." It may not have attracted the "real punks," but it did ensnare many new readers, and it provided the sort of movement that postmodern literary critics found alluring. Cyberpunk made science fiction more attractive to academics, argues Brin; in addition, it made science fiction more profitable to Hollywood and to the visual arts generally. Although the "self-important rhetoric and whines of persecution" on the part of cyberpunk fans were irritating at worst and humorous at best, Brin declares that the "rebels did shake things up. We owe them a debt."[33]
Cyberpunk further inspired many professional writers who were not among the "original" cyberpunks to incorporate cyberpunk ideas into their own works, such as George Alec Effinger's When Gravity Fails. Wired magazine, created by Louis Rossetto and Jane Metcalfe, mixes new technology, art, literature, and current topics in order to interest today’s cyberpunk fans, which Paula Yoo claims "proves that hardcore hackers, multimedia junkies, cyberpunks and cellular freaks are poised to take over the world."[34]

[edit] Film and television

A futuristic Los Angeles in Blade Runner.
The film Blade Runner (1982), adapted from Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, is set in 2019 in a dystopian future in which manufactured beings called replicants are slaves used on space colonies and are legal prey on Earth to various bounty hunters who "retire" (kill) them. Although Blade Runner was largely unsuccessful in its first theatrical release, it found a viewership in the home video market and became a cult film.[35] Since the movie omits the religious and mythical elements of Dick's original novel (e.g. empathy boxes and Wilbur Mercer), it falls more strictly within the cyberpunk genre than the novel does. William Gibson would later reveal that upon first viewing the film, he was surprised at how the look of this film matched his vision when he was working on Neuromancer. The film's tone has since been the staple of many cyberpunk movies, such as The Matrix (1999), which uses a wide variety of cyberpunk elements.
The number of films in the genre or at least using a few genre elements has grown steadily since Blade Runner. Several of Philip K. Dick's works have been adapted to the silver screen. The films Johnny Mnemonic[36] and New Rose Hotel,[37][38] both based upon short stories by William Gibson, flopped commercially and critically.
In addition, "tech-noir" film as a hybrid genre, means a work of combining neo-noir and science fiction or cyberpunk. It includes many cyberpunk films such as Blade Runner, The Terminator, 12 Monkeys, The Lawnmower Man, Hackers, Hardware, and Strange Days.

[edit] Anime and manga

See also: List of cyberpunk anime works
Cyberpunk themes are widely visible in anime and manga. In Japan, where cosplay is popular and not only teenagers display such fashion styles, cyberpunk has been accepted and its influence is widespread. William Gibson’s Neuromancer, whose influence dominated the early cyberpunk movement, was also set in Chiba, one of Japan’s largest industrial areas, although at the time of writing the novel Gibson did not know the location of Chiba and had no idea how perfectly it fit his vision in some ways. The exposure to cyberpunk ideas and fiction in the mid 1980s has allowed it to seep into the Japanese culture. Even though most anime and manga is written in Japan, the cyberpunk anime and manga have a more futuristic and therefore international feel to them so they are widely accepted by all. “The conceptualization involved in cyberpunk is more of forging ahead, looking at the new global culture. It is a culture that does not exist right now, so the Japanese concept of a cyberpunk future, seems just as valid as a Western one, especially as Western cyberpunk often incorporates many Japanese elements.”[39] William Gibson is now a frequent visitor to Japan, and he came to see that many of his visions of Japan have become a reality:
Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk. The Japanese themselves knew it and delighted in it. I remember my first glimpse of Shibuya, when one of the young Tokyo journalists who had taken me there, his face drenched with the light of a thousand media-suns—all that towering, animated crawl of commercial information—said, "You see? You see? It is Blade Runner town." And it was. It so evidently was.[40]
Cyberpunk has influenced many anime and manga including the ground-breaking Armitage III, Akira, Battle Angel Alita and Ghost in the Shell.

[edit] Games & Online

Several role-playing games (RPGs) called Cyberpunk exist: Cyberpunk, Cyberpunk 2020 and Cyberpunk v3, by R. Talsorian Games, and GURPS Cyberpunk, published by Steve Jackson Games as a module of the GURPS family of RPGs. Cyberpunk 2020 was designed with the settings of William Gibson's writings in mind, and to some extent with his approval[citation needed], unlike the approach taken by FASA in producing the transgenre Shadowrun game. Both are set in the near future, in a world where cybernetics are prominent. In addition, Iron Crown Enterprises released an RPG named Cyberspace, which was out of print for several years until recently being re-released in online PDF form.
In 1990, in a convergence of cyberpunk art and reality, the United States Secret Service raided Steve Jackson Games's headquarters and confiscated all their computers. This was allegedly because the GURPS Cyberpunk sourcebook could be used to perpetrate computer crime. That was, in fact, not the main reason for the raid, but after the event it was too late to correct the public's impression.[41] Steve Jackson Games later won a lawsuit against the Secret Service, aided by the new Electronic Frontier Foundation. This event has achieved a sort of notoriety, which has extended to the book itself as well. All published editions of GURPS Cyberpunk have a tagline on the front cover, which reads "The book that was seized by the U.S. Secret Service!" Inside, the book provides a summary of the raid and its aftermath.
Cyberpunk has also inspired several tabletop, miniature and board games. Netrunner is a collectible card game introduced in 1996, based on the Cyberpunk 2020 role-playing game.
Computer games have frequently used cyberpunk as a source of inspiration, such as the Deus Ex series and the System Shock series as well as the MMORPG Neocron. Other games, like Blade Runner and the Matrix games, are based upon genre movies. Electronic Arts and Tilted Mill also published a game called SimCity Societies in 2007 which features the ability for a cyberpunk society along with numerous others. While it is arguable as to whether or not the game as a whole should be classified as cyberpunk, the widely popular Final Fantasy VII features many elements of cyberpunk fiction, particularly in regards to its portrayals of the world-ruling technological corporation Shinra and the dystopian city of Midgar, which is the center of Shinra power.
The city of Insilico in Second Life is also influenced by the Cyberpunk theme [42] as well as other cities in Second Life, such as Hangars Liquides, and S.I.C.[43]
Another game was Hell: A Cyberpunk Thriller on the 3DO System.

[edit] Social impact

[edit] Architecture and urban planning

Berlin's Sony Center
Some real life places have been described as cyberpunk, such as Japan,[14] the Sony Center in the Potsdamer Platz public square of Berlin, Germany,[44] and Shanghai.[45]

[edit] Society and counterculture

Several subcultures have been inspired by cyberpunk fiction. These include the Cyberdelic counter culture of the late 80s and early 90s. Cyberdelic, whose adherents referred to themselves as "cyberpunks," attempted to blend the psychedelic art and drug movement with the technology of cyberculture. Early adherents included Timothy Leary, Mark Frauenfelder and R. U. Sirius. The movement largely faded following the dot-com bubble implosion of 2000.
Cybergoth is a fashion and dance subculture which draws its inspiration from cyberpunk fiction, as well as rave and gothic subcultures.
In addition, a distinct cyberpunk fashion of its own has emerged in recent years which rejects the raver and goth influences of cybergoth.

[edit] Arts and aesthetics

[edit] Literary subgenres and connected genres

As a wider variety of writers began to work with cyberpunk concepts, new sub-genres of science fiction emerged, some which could be considered as playing off the cyberpunk label, others which could be considered as legitimate explorations into newer territory. These focused on technology and its social effects in different ways. One prominent subgenre is "steampunk," which is set in an alternate history Victorian era that combines anachronistic technology with cyberpunk's bleak film noir world view. The term was originally coined around 1987 as a joke to describe some of the novels of Tim Powers, James P. Blaylock, and K.W. Jeter, but by the time Gibson and Sterling entered the subgenre with their collaborative novel The Difference Engine the term was being used earnestly as well.[46]
Another subgenre is "biopunk" (cyberpunk themes dominated by biotechnology) from the early 1990s, a derivative style building on biotechnology rather than informational technology. In these stories, people are changed in some way not by mechanical means, but by genetic manipulation. Paul Di Filippo is seen as the most prominent biopunk writer, including his half-serious ribofunk. Bruce Sterling's Shaper/Mechanist cycle is also seen as a major influence. In addition, some people consider works such as Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age to be postcyberpunk.

[edit] Music

"Much of the industrial/dance heavy 'Cyberpunk' – recorded in Billy Idol's Macintosh-run studio – revolves around Idol's theme of the common man rising up to fight against a faceless, soulless, corporate world."
—Julie Romandetta[47]
Some musicians and acts have been classified as cyberpunk due to their aesthetic style and musical content. Often dealing with dystopian visions of the future or biomechanical themes, some fit more squarely in the category than others. Bands whose music has been classified as cyberpunk include Psydoll, Front Line Assembly, Atari Teenage Riot and Sigue Sigue Sputnik. Some musicians not normally associated with cyberpunk have at times been inspired to create concept albums exploring such themes. Nine Inch Nails' concept album Year Zero fits into this category. Billy Idol's Cyberpunk drew heavily from cyberpunk literature and the cyberdelic counter culture in its creation. 1. Outside, a cyberpunk narrative fueled concept album by David Bowie, was warmly met by critics upon its release in 1995. Many musicians have also taken inspiration from specific cyberpunk works or authors, including Sonic Youth, whose albums Sister and Daydream Nation take influence from the works of Phillip K. Dick and William Gibson respectively.
Industrial music can be seen as cyberpunk, as well as various electronic body music acts.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Anonymous. (2009). What is cyberpunk? Cyberpunked: Journal of Science, Technology, & Society. Retrieved from
  2. ^ Ketterer, David (1992). Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy. Indiana University Press. p. 141. ISBN 0253331226. 
  3. ^ The Etymology of "Cyberpunk"
  4. ^ Bruce Bethke at The Cyberpunk Project
  5. ^ Hassler, Donald M. (2008). New Boundaries in Political Science Fiction. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 1570037361. 
  6. ^ McHale, Brian (1991). "POSTcyberMODERNpunkISM." in Larry McCaffery, ed., Storming the Reality Studio: A Casebook of Cyberpunk and Postmodern Science Fiction. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, pp. 308–323
  7. ^ a b Graham, Stephen (2004). The Cybercities Reader. Routledge. p. 389. ISBN 0415279569. 
  8. ^ Gibson, William from Burning Chrome published in 1981
  9. ^ Gillis, Stacy (2005). The Matrix Trilogy:Cyberpunk Reloaded. Wallflower Press. p. 75. ISBN 1904764320. 
  10. ^ a b Notes Toward a Postcyberpunk Manifesto – Person, Lawrence first published in Nova Express issue 16, 1998, later posted to Slashdot
  11. ^ "The Cyberpunk Movement – Cyberpunk authors". Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  12. ^ a b Chaudhuri, Shohini (2005). Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 104. ISBN 074861799X. 
  13. ^ Hidden Tokyo
  14. ^ a b How did Japan become the favored default setting for so many cyberpunk writers?
  15. ^ Gibson, William (August 1984). Neuromancer. Ace Books. p. 69. ISBN 0-441-56956-0. 
  16. ^ James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0521016576. 
  17. ^ Campbell, Neil (2000). The Cultures of the New American West. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 1579582885. 
  18. ^ {{cite book |last=Seed |first=David |authorlink= |title=Publishing] |url=[[Blackwell|year=2005 |page=220 |isbn=1405112182}}
  19. ^ Cyberpunk 2021
  20. ^ {{cite book |last=Seal |first=Graham |authorlink= |title=University Press] |url=[[Cambridge|year=1996 |page=195 |isbn=0521557402}}
  21. ^ Taylor, Todd W. (1998). Literacy Theory in the Age of the Internet. Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0231113315. 
  22. ^ FAQ file (from the alt.cyberpunk Usenet group)
  23. ^ Brin, David The Transparent Society, Basic Books, 1998 Book link
  24. ^ Clarke, Arthur C. "The Last Question," Science Fiction Quarterly, 1956
  25. ^ Bethke, Bruce. "Cyberpunk" Amazing Science Fiction Stories, Vol. 57, No. 4; November 1983 Link
  26. ^ John Shirley. Two Cyberpunks: Sterling and Rucker 1999 Link
  27. ^ Jargon File definition
  28. ^ a b c Brians, Paul. “Study Guide for William Gibson: Neuromancer (1984)” Washington State University, [1]
  29. ^ James, Edward. Science Fiction in the 20th Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, 1994. p. 197
  30. ^ Brian Stonehill, "Pynchon's Prophecies of Cyberspace." Delivered at the first international conference on Pynchon, the University of Warwick, England, November 1994.
  31. ^ Booker, M. Keith (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War:American Science Fiction and the Roots of Postmodernism, 1946–1964. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 60. ISBN 0313318735. 
  32. ^ Grebowicz, Margret (2007). SciFi in the Mind's Eye: Reading Science Through Science Fiction. Open Court Publishing Company. p. 147. ISBN 0812696301. 
  33. ^ David Brin, Review of The Matrix.
  34. ^ Yoo, Paula. “CYBERPUNK – IN PRINT – HACKER GENERATION GETS PLUGGED INTO NEW MAGAZINE” Seattle Times. Seattle, Wash.: Feb 18, 1993. pg. G.3
  35. ^ Kerman, Judith (1997). Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner and Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. Popular Press. p. 132. ISBN 0879725109. 
  36. ^ "". Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  37. ^ "DVD Verdict Review – New Rose Hotel". 2000-01-10. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  38. ^ "'New Rose Hotel': Corporate Intrigue, Steamy Seduction". 1999-10-01. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  39. ^ Ruh, Brian (2000), "Liberating Cels: Forms of the Female in Japanese Cyberpunk Animation." December 2000.
  40. ^ Gibson, William. "The Future Perfect: How Did Japan Become the Favored Default Setting for So Many Cyberpunk Writers?", Time International, 30 April 2001:48.
  41. ^ SJ Games Raided – Jackson, Steve, Steve Jackson Games website, Friday 19 April 1990
  42. ^ INSILICO
  43. ^ Second Life Cyber Destinations
  44. ^ Suzuki, David (2003). Good News for a Change:How Everyday People Are Helping the Planet. Greystone Books. p. 332. ISBN 155054926X. 
  45. ^ Sahr Johnny, "Cybercity - Sahr Johnny's Shanghai Dream" That's Shanghai, October 2005; quoted online by [2].
  46. ^ Michael Berry, "Wacko Victorian Fantasy Follows 'Cyberpunk' Mold," The San Francisco Chronicle, 25 June 1987; quoted online by Wordspy.
  47. ^ Romandetta, Julie (1993-06-25). "Cyber Sound: Old Fashioned Rock Gets a Future Shock from New Technology". Boston Herald (Boston, Mass. United States.). 

[edit] External links

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A steampunk-themed photo
Steampunk is a sub-genre of science fiction, fantasy, alternate history, and speculative fiction that came into prominence during the 1980s and early 1990s.[1] Steampunk involves a setting where steam power is still widely used—usually Victorian era Britain—that incorporates elements of either science fiction or fantasy. Works of steampunk often feature anachronistic technology or futuristic innovations as Victorians may have envisioned them, based on a Victorian perspective on fashion, culture, architectural style, art, etc. This technology may include such fictional machines as those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne.
Other examples of steampunk contain alternative history-style presentations of such technology as lighter-than-air airships, analog computers, or such digital mechanical computers as Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace's Analytical engine.
Various modern utilitarian objects have been modded by individual artisans into a pseudo-Victorian mechanical "steampunk" style, and a number of visual and musical artists have been described as steampunk.



[edit] Origin

"Maison tournante aérienne" (aerial rotating house) by Albert Robida for his book Le Vingtième Siècle, a 19th-century conception of life in the 20th century
Although many works now considered seminal to the genre were published in the 1960s and 1970s, the term steampunk originated in the late 1980s as a tongue in cheek variant of cyberpunk. It seems to have been coined by science fiction author K. W. Jeter, who was trying to find a general term for works by Tim Powers (The Anubis Gates, 1983); James Blaylock (Homunculus, 1986); and himself (Morlock Night, 1979, and Infernal Devices, 1987)—all of which took place in a 19th-century (usually Victorian) setting and imitated conventions of such actual Victorian speculative fiction as H. G. Wells' The Time Machine. In a letter to science fiction magazine Locus, printed in the April 1987 issue, Jeter wrote:
Dear Locus,
Enclosed is a copy of my 1979 novel Morlock Night; I'd appreciate your being so good as to route it Faren Miller, as it's a prime piece of evidence in the great debate as to who in "the Powers/Blaylock/Jeter fantasy triumvirate" was writing in the "gonzo-historical manner" first. Though of course, I did find her review in the March Locus to be quite flattering.
Personally, I think Victorian fantasies are going to be the next big thing, as long as we can come up with a fitting collective term for Powers, Blaylock and myself. Something based on the appropriate technology of the era; like "steampunks", perhaps...
—K.W. Jeter[2]

[edit] Proto-steampunk

Utopian flying machines of the 19th century, France, 1890–1900
Steampunk was influenced by, and often adopts the style of, the 19th century scientific romances of Jules Verne, H.G. Wells, Mark Twain, and Mary Shelley.[3]
Perhaps the most well known example of steampunk is Captain Nemo's Nautilus submarine in Walt Disney's 1954 film version of Jules Verne's 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.
Several works of fiction significant to the development of the genre were produced before the genre had a name. Titus Alone (1959), by Mervyn Peake, anticipated many of the tropes of steampunk.[4] One of the earliest mainstream manifestations of the steampunk ethos was the original CBS television series The Wild Wild West (1965–69), which inspired the film Wild Wild West (1999).[3][5] The film Brazil (1985) was an important early cinematic influence to the genre.[6][7]
Because he coined the term, K.W. Jeter's novel Morlock Night (1979) is typically considered to have established the genre.[citation needed] Keith Laumer made an early contribution with Worlds of the Imperium (1962). Ronald W. Clark's Queen Victoria's Bomb (1967)[8] and Michael Moorcock's Warlord of the Air (1971)[9] have been cited as early influences. Harry Harrison's novel A Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah! (1973) portrays a British Empire of an alternate 1973, full of atomic locomotives, coal-powered flying boats, ornate submarines, and Victorian dialogue. In February 1980 Richard A. Lupoff and Steve Stiles published the first "chapter" of their 10-part comic strip The Adventures of Professor Thintwhistle and His Incredible Aether Flyer.[10]

[edit] Steampunk as popular fiction

Cover of Issue 3 of Steampunk Magazine
1988 saw the publication of the first version of the science fiction roleplaying game Space: 1889, set in an alternate history in which certain discredited Victorian scientific theories were instead provable and have led to the existence of new technologies. Contributing authors included Frank Chadwick, Loren Wiseman, and Marcus Rowland.[11]
William Gibson and Bruce Sterling's 1990 novel The Difference Engine is often credited with bringing widespread awareness of steampunk to a wider readership.[5][12] This novel applies the principles of Gibson and Sterling's cyberpunk writings to an alternate Victorian era where Ada Lovelace and Charles Babbage's proposed steam-powered mechanical computer, which Babbage called a difference engine (a later, more general-purpose version was known as an analytical engine), was actually built, and led to the dawn of the information age more than a century "ahead of schedule".
The first use of the word in a title was in Paul Di Filippo's 1995 Steampunk Trilogy, consisting of three short novels: "Victoria," "Hottentots," and "Walt and Emily," which respectively imagine the replacement of Queen Victoria by a human/newt clone, an invasion of Massachusetts by Lovecraftian monsters, and a love affair between Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson.
The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr, a 1990s TV science fiction-western set in the 1890s, on Fox Network, used elements of steampunk via the character Professor Wickwire, whose inventions were described as "the coming thing."[13] Alan Moore's and Kevin O'Neill's 1999 The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen graphic novel series (and the subsequent 2003 film adaption) greatly popularized the steampunk genre.[14]
Nick Gevers's 2008 original anthology Extraordinary Engines features new steampunk stories by some of the form's pre-eminent practitioners, as well as other leading science fiction and fantasy writers experimenting with neo-Victorian conventions. A major retrospective, reprint anthology of steampunk fiction was released, also in 2008, by Tachyon Publications; edited by Ann and Jeff VanderMeer and appropriately entitled Steampunk, it collects stories by James Blaylock, whose "Narbondo" trilogy is typically considered steampunk; Jay Lake, author of the novel Mainspring, sometimes labeled "clockpunk";[15] the aforementioned Michael Moorcock; as well as Jess Nevins, famed for his annotations to The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen.
While most of the original steampunk works had a historical setting, later works would often place steampunk elements in a fantasy world with little relation to any specific historical era. Historical steampunk tends to be more "science fictional:" presenting an alternate history; real locales and persons from history with different technology. Fantasy-world steampunk, such as China Miéville's Perdido Street Station and Stephen Hunt's Jackelian novels, on the other hand, presents steampunk in a completely imaginary fantasy realm, often populated by legendary creatures coexisting with steam-era or anachronistic technologies.
Self-described and popular author of "far fetched fiction" Robert Rankin has over many novels increasingly incorporated elements of steampunk into narrative worlds, both Victorian and re-imagined contemporary. He was in 2009 made a Fellow of the Victorian Steampunk Society.[16]

[edit] Historical

In general, the category includes any recent science fiction that takes place in a recognizable historical period (sometimes an alternate history version of an actual historical period) where the Industrial Revolution has already begun but electricity is not yet widespread, with an emphasis on steam- or spring-propelled gadgets. The most common historical steampunk settings are the Victorian and Edwardian eras, though some in this "Victorian steampunk" category can go as early as the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Some examples of this type include the novel The Difference Engine,[17] the comic book series League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, the Disney animated film Atlantis: The Lost Empire,[3] the Anime series Fullmetal Alchemist and the roleplaying game Space: 1889.[3] Some, such as the comic series Girl Genius,[3] have their own unique times and places despite partaking heavily of the flavor of historic times and settings.
Karel Zeman's film The Fabulous World of Jules Verne from 1958 is a very early example of cinematic steampunk. Based on Jules Verne novels, Zeman's film imagines a past based on those novels which never was.[18] Other early examples of historical steampunk in cinema include Hayao Miyazaki's anime films such as Laputa: Castle in the Sky (1986), and Howl's Moving Castle (2004). Both contain many archetypal anachronisms characteristic of the Steampunk genre.[19][20]
Historical steampunk usually leans more towards science fiction than fantasy, but there have been a number of historical steampunk stories that incorporated magical elements as well. For example, Morlock Night, written by K. W. Jeter, revolves around an attempt by the wizard Merlin to raise King Arthur to save the Britain of 1892 from an invasion of Morlocks from the future.[5] The Anubis Gates by Tim Powers involves a cabal of magicians among the beggars and thieves of the early 19th century London underworld.
Paul Guinan’s Boilerplate, the biography of a robot in the late 19th century, began as a website that garnered international press coverage when people began believing that Photoshop images of the robot with historic personages were real.[21] The site was adapted into an illustrated hardbound book Boilerplate: History’s Mechanical Marvel, and published by Abrams in October 2009.[22] Because the story was not set in an alternate history, and in fact contained accurate information about the Victorian era,[23] some booksellers referred to the tome as "historical steampunk."

[edit] Fantasy-world

Since the 1990s, the application of the steampunk label has expanded beyond works set in recognizable historical periods (usually the 19th century) to works set in fantasy worlds that rely heavily on steam- or spring-powered technology.[5]
Fantasy steampunk settings abound in tabletop and computer role-playing games. Notable examples include Skies of Arcadia, Final Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy IX,[24] Rise of Nations: Rise of Legends,[25] and Arcanum: Of Steamworks and Magick Obscura.[3]
The gnomes and goblins in World of Warcraft also have technological societies that could be described as Steampunk[26] as they are vastly ahead of the technologies of men, and are not magical like those of the Elves.
In between the historical and fantasy sub-genres of steampunk is a type which takes place in a hypothetical future or a fantasy equivalent of our future where steampunk-style technology and aesthetics have come to dominate. Examples include the anime series Turn A Gundam (1999–2000), Trigun, and Hayao Miyazaki's post-apocalyptic anime Future Boy Conan (1978),[27] and Disney's film Treasure Planet (2002).[3]

[edit] Other variants

John Clute and John Grant have introduced the category gaslight romance or gaslamp fantasy. According to them, "steampunk stories are most commonly set in a romanticized, smoky, 19th-century London, as are Gaslight Romances. But the latter category focuses nostalgically on icons from the late years of that century and the early years of the 20th century--on Dracula, Jekyll and Hyde, Jack the Ripper, Sherlock Holmes and even Tarzan--and can normally be understood as combining supernatural fiction and recursive fantasy, though some gaslight romances can be read as fantasies of history."[1]
The term steamgoth, coined by author and artist James Richardson-Brown, emphasizes a far darker view of Steampunk's anachronisms.[28]
Another setting is Western steampunk, which overlaps with both the Weird West and Science fiction Western subgenres. Several other categories have arisen sharing similar naming structures, including dieselpunk, clockpunk, and others. Most of these terms were invented for supplements to the GURPS roleplaying game, and are not used in other contexts.[29]

[edit] Art and design

Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon, Canberra, Australia (September 24, 2009)
Various modern utilitarian objects have been modified by enthusiasts into a pseudo-Victorian mechanical "steampunk" style.[7][30] Example objects include computer keyboards and electric guitars.[31] The goal of such redesigns is to employ appropriate materials (such as polished brass, iron, wood, and leather) with design elements and craftsmanship consistent with the Victorian era.[9][32] The artist group Kinetic Steam Works[33] brought a working steam engine to the Burning Man festival in 2006 and 2007.[34] The group's founding member, Sean Orlando, created a Steampunk Tree House (in association with a group of people who would later form the Five Ton Crane Arts Group[35]) that has been displayed at a number of festivals.[36][37] The Steampunk Tree House is now permanently installed at the Dogfish Head Craft Brewery in Milton, Delaware.[38][39]
In May–June 2008, multimedia artist and sculptor Paul St George exhibited outdoor interactive video installations linking London and Brooklyn, New York City in a Victorian era-styled telectroscope.[40][41] Evelyn Kriete, a promoter and Brass Goggles contributor, organized a trans-atlantic wave by steampunk enthusiasts from both cities,[42] briefly prior to White Mischief's Around the World in 80 Days steampunk-themed event.

Paul St George's Telectroscope installation at London City Hall (May 24, 2008)
In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon representing the concept of the clockwork universe. This steel artwork contains moving gears, a working clock, and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. The 3D moon movie was created by Antony Williams.
The Syfy series Warehouse 13 features many steampunk-inspired objects and artifacts, including computer designs created by steampunk artisan Richard Nagy, aka "Datamancer".[43]
The BBC series Doctor Who also incorporates steampunk elements in the design of the Doctor's time machine, the Tardis, first presented in the 1996 American co-production when the Tardis interior was re-designed to resemble an almost Victorian library with the central control console made up of eclectic and anachronistic objects. Modified and streamlined for the 2005 revival of the series, the Tardis console continues to incorporate steampunk elements, including a Victorian typewriter and gramophone.
From October 2009 through February 2010, the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford hosted the first major exhibition of Steampunk art objects, curated by Art Donovan and presented by Dr. Jim Bennett, museum director.[44] From redesigned practical items to fantastical contraptions, this exhibition showcased the work of eighteen Steampunk artists from across the globe. The exhibition proved to be the most successful in the museum's history and attracted more than eighty thousand visitors.[45]

[edit] Culture

Because of the popularity of steampunk with goths, punks, cybergoths, industrial music fans, and gamers, there is a growing movement towards establishing steampunk as a culture and lifestyle.[46] Some fans of the genre adopt a steampunk aesthetic through fashion,[47] home decor, music, and film. This may be described as neo-Victorianism, which is the amalgamation of Victorian aesthetic principles with modern sensibilities and technologies.[6] Some have proposed a steampunk philosophy, sometimes with punk-inspired anti-establishment sentiments, and typically bolstered by optimism about human potential.[48]

Author G. D. Falksen, wearing a steampunk-styled arm prosthesis by Thomas Willeford, exemplifying one take on steampunk fashion.
Steampunk fashion has no set guidelines, but tends to synthesize modern styles influenced by the Victorian era. This may include gowns, corsets, petticoats and bustles; suits with vests, coats and spats; or military-inspired garments. Steampunk-influenced outfits will often be accented with a mixture of technological and period accessories: timepieces, parasols, goggles, and ray guns. Modern accessories like cell phones or music players can be found in steampunk outfits, after being modified to give them the appearance of Victorian-made objects. Aspects of steampunk fashion have been anticipated by mainstream high fashion, the Lolita fashion and aristocrat styles, neo-Victorianism, and the romantic goth subculture.[6][14][49] Steampunk became a common descriptor for homemade objects on the craft network Etsy between 2009 and 2011, though many of the objects and fashions bear little resemblance to steampunk as described on this page, and so may not strike observers as sufficiently steampunk to warrant the moniker. Comedienne April Winchell, author of the book, Regretsy: Where DIY meets WTF, catalogs some of the most egregious and humorous examples on her website.[50]
Steampunk music is even less defined, as Caroline Sullivan says in The Guardian: "Internet debates rage about exactly what constitutes the steampunk sound."[41] This range of steampunk musical styles can be heard in the work of various steampunk artists, from the industrial dance/world music of Abney Park,[49] the inventor/singer-songwriter creations of Thomas Truax,[41][51] the Carnatic influenced music of Sunday Driver,[52] the "industrial hip-hop opera" of Doctor Steel,[53][54] the darkwave and progressive rock sounds of Vernian Process,[55][56] the Unextraordinary Gentlemen,[57] the electronic sounds of The Wet-Glass RO,[58][59] Darcy James Argue's 18-piece big band Secret Society and the musical storytelling of Escape the Clouds.[60] The British-American composer David Bruce's 2010 octet 'Steampunk' was commissioned by Carnegie Hall.[61][62]
In 2006, SalonCon, the first ever Neo-Victorian/Steampunk convention, was held. It ran for three consecutive years and featured artists, musicians (Voltaire and Abney Park), authors (Catherynne M. Valente, Ekaterina Sedia, and G. D. Falksen), salons led by people prominent in their respective fields, workshops and panels on Steampunk as well as a seance, ballroom dance instruction, and the Chrononauts' Parade. The event was covered by MTV[63] and The New York Times.[6]
Steampunk has also become a regular feature at San Diego Comic-Con International in recent years, with the Saturday of the four-day event being generally known among steampunks as "Steampunk Day", and culminating with a photoshoot for the local press.[64][65] The Saturday steampunk "after-party" has also become a major event on the steampunk social calendar; in 2010 the headliners included The Slow Poisoner, Unextraordinary Gentlemen and Voltaire, with Veronique Chevalier as Mistress of Ceremonies and special appearance by the League of STEAM,[66][67] and in 2011 UXG returned with Abney Park.[68]
Steampunk has begun to attract notice from more "mainstream" sources, as well: The episode of the TV series Castle entitled "Punked", which aired on October 11, 2010, prominently featured the steampunk subculture and used a number of Los Angeles-area steampunks as extras[69] (an earlier episode of NCIS:LA had Abby going to a "steampunk" bar in a segment which was soundly criticized by the steampunk community[70]); the Nashville-based country-rock band Sugarland used steampunk-styled lettering for the cover of their October 19, 2010 album The Incredible Machine, and their stage act featured steampunk-inspired costumes; Canadian supergroup Rush included steampunk elements in their 2011 Time Machine tour, including steampunked amps and instruments;[71] the comic strip Luann showed the title character dressed in steampunk fashion for Halloween on October 31, 2010;[72] and in February 2011, the band Panic! at the Disco released a music video for their new single, "The Ballad of Mona Lisa," depicting a steampunk wake. The video included appearances by the League of STEAM, who also served as consultants and provided costume pieces for the band.[73]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Clute, John; Grant, John, eds (February 1999) [First published 1997]. "Steampunk". The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. Contributing editors: Mike Ashley, Roz Kaveney, David Langford, Ron Tiner (Rev. ed.). New York: St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 895–896. ISBN 978-0-312-19869-8. "STEAMPUNK A term applied more to science fiction than to fantasy, though some tales described as steampunk do cross genres. ... Steampunk, on the other hand, can be best described as technofantasy that is based, sometimes quite remotely, upon technological anachronism." 
  2. ^ Sheidlower, Jesse (March 9, 2005). "Science Fiction Citations". Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Strickland, Jonathan. "Famous Steampunk Works". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved May 18, 2008. 
  4. ^ Sophie Lewis, Lucy Daniel (ed.), The little black book: Books, "Titus Alone" p.439, Octopus publishing, (2007) US, isbn= 978-1-84403605-9
  5. ^ a b c d Lev Grossman (December 14, 2009). "Steampunk: Reclaiming Tech for the Masses". Time.,9171,1945343,00.html. Retrieved 2009-12-10. "Steampunk has been around for at least 30 years, with roots going back further. An early example is K. W. Jeter's 1979 novel Morlock Night, a sequel to H.G. Wells' The Time Machine in which the Morlocks travel back in time to invade 1890s London. Steampunk — Jeter coined the name — was already an established subgenre by 1990, when William Gibson and Bruce Sterling introduced a wider audience to it in The Difference Engine, a novel set in a Victorian England running Babbage's hardware and ruled by Lord Byron, who had escaped death in Greece. ..." 
  6. ^ a b c d La Ferla, Ruth (May 8, 2008). "Steampunk Moves Between 2 Worlds". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 
  7. ^ a b Braiker, Brian (October 31, 2007). "Steampunking Technology: A subculture hand-tools today's gadgets with Victorian style". Newsweek. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 
  8. ^ Nevins, Jess (2003). Heroes & Monsters: The Unofficial Companion to the League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. MonkeyBrain Books. ISBN 193226504X. 
  9. ^ a b Bebergal, Peter (August 26, 2007). "The Age of Steampunk". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  10. ^ Lupoff, Richard; Stiles, Steve (February 1980; v. 3, #10), "The Adventures of Professor Thintwhistle and His Incredible Aether Flyer", Heavy Metal: 27–32 et seq. 
  11. ^ "Heliograph's Space 1889 Resource Site". Heliograph, Inc.. 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2010-11-29. 
  12. ^ Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan (March 1997). "The Critic: John Clute. Look at the Evidence. Essays and Reviews.". Science Fiction Studies (DePauw University, Greencastle Indiana: SF-TH Inc.) (#71; Volume 24, Part 1). Retrieved 2010-11-29. 
  13. ^ Andrew Orillion (June 8, 2010). "A Fistful of Geek: A Look Back at The Adventures of Brisco County Jr.". Slant Magazine. 
  14. ^ a b Damon Poeter (July 6, 2008). "Steampunk's subculture revealed". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 8, 2008. 
  15. ^ Doctorow, Cory (July 8, 2007). "Jay Lake's "Mainspring:" Clockpunk adventure". Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  16. ^ "Fellows of the Victorian Steampunk Society". 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 
  17. ^ difference engine - book review for. Retrieved on February 13, 2009.
  18. ^ Waldrop, Howard & Person, Lawrence (October 13, 2004). "The Fabulous World of Jules Verne". Locus Online. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  19. ^ "the news and media magazine of the British Science Fiction Association". Matrix Online. June 30, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  20. ^ Cynthia Ward (August 20, 2003). "Hayao Miyazaki: The Greatest Fantasy Director You Never Heard Of?". Retrieved June 13, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Boilerplate isn't real???". 2002-09-02. Retrieved 2011-03-17. 
  22. ^ "Boilerplate". Retrieved 2011-03-17. 
  23. ^ "A Preview of Boilerplate: History's Mechanical Marvel". Omnivoracious. 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2011-03-17. 
  24. ^ "Skies of Arcadia review on RPGnet". Retrieved September 8, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Rise of legends as steampunk video game". Retrieved September 8, 2009. 
  26. ^ Xerin (March 9, 2010). "WoW: Loremaster's Corner #5: A Steampunk Paradise". Ten Ton Hammer. Retrieved 2010-05-30. "World of Warcraft is almost a steampunk paradise if you look at the various technological advancements the gnomes have made. Most engines are powered by steam and there are giant airships floating around everywhere." 
  27. ^ "Unprecedented level of game service operation’ from Steampunk MMORPG Neo Steam". June 29, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2009. [dead link]
  28. ^ Chronicles Magazine, 2007
  29. ^ Stoddard, William H., GURPS Steampunk (2000)
  30. ^ Sharon Steel (May 19, 2008). "Steam dream: Steampunk bursts through its subculture roots to challenge our musical, fashion, design, and even political sensibilities". The Boston Phoenix. Retrieved September 27, 2008. 
  31. ^ von Slatt, Jake. "The Steampunk Workshop". Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  32. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (February 6, 2008). "Steampunk Brings Victorian Flair to the 21st Century". National Public Radio. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  33. ^ "Kinetic Steam Works". 2006-2008. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  34. ^ Tristan "Loupiote" Savatier (2007). "Kinetic Steam Works' Case traction engine Hortense ". 
  35. ^ "Five Ton Crane". 2010. 
  36. ^ Xeni Jardin (24 January 2008). "Steampunk Tree House". Boing Boing TV. 
  37. ^ Orlando, Sean (2007–2008). "Steampunk Tree House". Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  38. ^ "Steampunk Tree House debuts at Dogfish in Milton". Cape Gazette. 2 July 2010. 
  39. ^ "Steampunk Treehouse Finds Home At Dogfish". Dogfish Head Craft Brewery. 21 June 2010. 
  40. ^ MELENA RYZIK (May 21, 2008). "Telescope Takes a Long View, to London". New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2008. 
  41. ^ a b c Caroline Sullivan (October 17, 2008). "Tonight I'm gonna party like it's 1899". London: Guardian. Retrieved October 17, 2008. 
  42. ^ Brass Goggles (June 7, 2007). "Telecroscope Meeting Today (And White Mischief)". Retrieved June 20, 2008. 
  43. ^ stephanie (August 16, 2009). "Warehouse 13: Steampunk TV". Retrieved October 2, 2009. 
  44. ^ "Steampunk". Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. "Imagine the technology of today with the aesthetic of Victorian science." 
  45. ^ Mark Ward (November 30, 2009). "Tech Know: Fast forward to the past". Retrieved November 30, 2009. 
  46. ^ Kaye, Marco (July 25, 2008). "Mom, Dad, I'm Into Steampunk". Retrieved August 4, 2008. 
  47. ^ Rauchfuss, Marcus (July 1, 2008). "Steampunk Aesthetics". Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  48. ^ Swerlick, Andrew (May 11, 2007). "Technology Gets Steampunk'd". Retrieved August 4, 2008. 
  49. ^ a b Andrew Ross Rowe (September 29, 2008). "What Is Steampunk? A Subculture Infiltrating Films, Music, Fashion, More". MTV. Retrieved October 14, 2008. 
  50. ^ "Not Remotely Steampunk". Regretsy. Retrieved 08-26-2011. 
  51. ^ Killjoy, Magpie (Jan 8, 2006). "Thomas Truax, an Interview". Steampunk Magazine Issue 1. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  52. ^ D.M.P. (2010-01-16). "Beyond Victoriana: #10 An Interview with Sunday Driver". Tales of the Urban Adventurer. 
  53. ^ "Audio Drome Review: Dr. Steel" (back issue). Rue Morgue Magazine, issue 42. November/December 2004. 
  54. ^ Wesley Scoggins. "Interview: Dr. Phineas Waldolf Steel, Mad Scientist". Indy Mogul. Retrieved August 29, 2009. "Many have mentioned your work in regards to Steampunk influenced bands like Abney Park (and for that matter the Steampunk "style" in general)." 
  55. ^ "Interview: Vernian Process". Sepia Chord. December 19, 2006. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  56. ^ "Interview with Joshua A. Pfeiffer". Aether Emporium. October 2, 2006. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  57. ^ Kim Lakin-Smith (June 20, 2008). "Pump Up The Volume:The Sound of Steampunk". matrix. Retrieved November 11, 2008. 
  58. ^ Sepiachord (December 30, 2009). "Airship Isabella Steampunk Complilation Interview". Sepiachord. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  59. ^ Ben Steed (March 15, 2010). "SteamTuesday presents Ben Steed - Producer, composer, songwriter". Overbury Ink. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  60. ^ Tome Wilson (October 1, 2010). "Interview with Mark Rossmore of Escape the Clouds". Dieselpunks. Retrieved =October 5, 2010. 
  61. ^ "Carnegie Hall Premieres to present new work by David Bruce". Skidmore College. 28 January 2011. 
  62. ^ David Bruce (November 2010). "David Bruce's Carnegie Hall commission, Steampunk" (Full 22 minute piece in five movements, streamable). David Bruce. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  63. ^ "Steampunk Infiltrates the Mainstream". Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  64. ^ "Comic Con: Day Three – Steampunks!". July 28, 2009. 
  65. ^ "San Diego Comic-Con 2010 Day 3". Retrieved 2010-07-31. "Comic-Con Steampunk Meetup" 
  66. ^ "The League of Temporal Adventurers First Society Gala". Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  67. ^ Liz Ohanesian (July 28, 2010). "Comic-Con Interview: Musician/Artist Voltaire is a Convention Renaissance Man". LA Weekly Magazine. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  68. ^ "Promotional poster for Comic Con's steampunk after-party, "The Time Machine"". Retrieved 2011-07-23. 
  69. ^ Clarissa (October 11, 2010). "Sneak Peeks – Castle 3.04 "Punked"". 
  70. ^ G. D. Falksen (Nov 29 2009). "NCIS: LA and Steampunk; or, how not to capitalize on a popular emerging subculture". 
  71. ^ Chris Vinnicombe (6 Jul 2010). "Rush go steampunk for Time Machine tour!". 
  72. ^ Luann comic strip at Retrieved 2010-12-28
  73. ^ James Montgomery (Feb 8 2011). "Panic! At The Disco's 'Mona Lisa' Video: Go Behind The Scenes". 

[edit] Sources

[edit] Further reading


This page was last modified on 5 October 2011 at 12:26.
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Ok, so Now We Know... What Steampunk is!;)


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