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|Born||10 December 1815(1815-12-10) |
|Died||27 November 1852(1852-11-27) (aged 36) |
|Title||Countess of Lovelace|
|Spouse||1st Earl of Lovelace|
|Children||12th Baron Wentworth |
15th Baroness Wentworth
2nd Earl of Lovelace
|Parents||6th Baron Byron |
11th Baroness Wentworth
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, was an English writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine; as such she is sometimes considered the "World's First Computer Programmer".
She was the only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron (with Anne Isabella Milbanke). She had no relationship with her father, who died when she was nine. As a young adult she took an interest in mathematics, and in particular Babbage's work on the analytical engine. Between 1842 and 1843 she translated an article by Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea on the engine, which she supplemented with a set of notes of her own. These notes contain what is considered the first computer program—that is, an algorithm encoded for processing by a machine. Though Babbage's engine was not built until nearly 150 years later in 1989–91, Lovelace's notes are important in the early history of computers. She also foresaw the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching while others, including Babbage himself, focused only on these capabilities.
Ada Augusta Byron was born on 10 December 1815, the only child of the poet Lord Byron, 6th Lord Byron and his wife, Anne Isabella "Annabella" Milbanke, Baroness Wentworth. Byron, and many of those who knew Byron, expected that the baby would be "the glorious boy", and there was some disappointment at the contrary news. She was named after Byron's half-sister, Augusta Leigh, and was called "Ada" by Byron himself.
On 16 January 1816, Annabella, at Byron's behest, left for her parents' home at Kirkby Mallory taking one-month-old Lovelace with her. Although English law gave fathers full custody of their children in cases of separation, Byron made no attempt to claim his parental rights. On 21 April, Byron signed the Deed of Separation, although very reluctantly, and left England for good a few days later. Byron did not have a relationship with his daughter and he died in 1824 when she was nine; her mother was the only significant parental figure in her life. Her mother, Annabella, became Baroness Wentworth in her own right in 1856, being then the sole remaining representative of the Wentworth Viscounts.
Lovelace was often ill, dating from her early childhood. At the age of eight she experienced headaches that obscured her vision. In June 1829, she was paralysed after a bout of the measles. She was subjected to continuous bed rest for nearly a year, which may have extended her period of disability. By 1831 she was able to walk with crutches.
Throughout her illnesses, Lovelace continued her education. Her mother's obsession with rooting out any of the insanity of which she accused Lord Byron was one of the reasons that Lovelace was taught mathematics from an early age. Lovelace was privately schooled in mathematics and science by William Frend, William King and Mary Somerville. One of her later tutors was the noted mathematician and logician Augustus De Morgan. From 1832, when she was seventeen, her remarkable mathematical abilities began to emerge, and her interest in mathematics dominated her life even after her marriage. In a letter to Lovelace's mother, De Morgan suggested that Lovelace's skill in mathematics could lead her to become "an original mathematical investigator, perhaps of first-rate eminence".
Lovelace never met her younger half-sister, Allegra Byron, daughter of Lord Byron and Claire Clairmont, who died in 1822 at the age of five. She did, however, have some contact with Elizabeth Medora Leigh, the daughter of Byron's half-sister Augusta Leigh. Augusta Leigh purposely avoided Lovelace as much as possible when she was introduced at Court.
 Adult years
Lovelace knew Mary Somerville, noted researcher and scientific author of the 19th century, who introduced her to Charles Babbage on 5 June 1833. Other acquaintances were Sir David Brewster, Charles Wheatstone, Charles Dickens and Michael Faraday.
By 1834, Lovelace was a regular at Court and started attending various events. She danced often and was able to charm many people and was described by most people as being dainty. However, John Hobhouse, Lord Byron's friend, was the exception and he described her as "a large, coarse-skinned young woman but with something of my friend's features, particularly the mouth". This description followed their meeting on 24 February 1834 in which Lovelace made it clear to Hobhouse that she did not like him, probably due to the influence of her mother, which led her to dislike all of her father's friends. This first impression was not to last, and they later became friends.
On 8 July 1835 she married William King, 8th Baron King, later 1st Earl of Lovelace in 1838. Her full title for most of her married life was "The Right Honourable the Countess of Lovelace". Their residence was a large estate at Ockham Park, in Ockham, Surrey, along with another estate on Loch Torridon and a home in London. They had three children; Byron born 12 May 1836, Anne Isabella (called Annabella, later Lady Anne Blunt) born 22 September 1837 and Ralph Gordon born 2 July 1839. Immediately after the birth of Annabella, Lovelace experienced "a tedious and suffering illness, which took months to cure".
In 1841, Lovelace and Medora Leigh (daughter of Lord Byron's half-sister Augusta Leigh) were told by Lovelace's mother that Byron, her father, was also Medora's father. On 27 February 1841, Lovelace wrote to her mother: "I am not in the least astonished. In fact you merely confirm what I have for years and years felt scarcely a doubt about, but should have considered it most improper in me to hint to you that I in any way suspected". Lovelace did not blame the incestuous relationship on Byron, but instead blamed Augusta Leigh: "I fear she is more inherently wicked than he ever was". This did not prevent Lovelace's mother from attempting to destroy her daughter's image of her father, but instead drove her to attack Byron's image with greater intensity.
 Charles Babbage
Ada Lovelace met and corresponded with Charles Babbage on many occasions, including socially and in relation to Babbage's Difference Engine and Analytical Engine. Babbage was impressed by Lovelace's intellect and writing skills. He called her "The Enchantress of Numbers". In 1843 he wrote of her:
Forget this world and all its troubles and if
possible its multitudinous Charlatans – every thing
in short but the Enchantress of Numbers.
During a nine-month period in 1842–43, Lovelace translated Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea's memoir on Babbage's newest proposed machine, the Analytical Engine. With the article, she appended a set of notes. The notes are longer than the memoir itself and include (Section G), in complete detail, a method for calculating a sequence of Bernoulli numbers with the Engine, which would have run correctly had the Analytical Engine been built. Based on this work, Lovelace is now widely credited with being the first computer programmer and her method is recognised as the world's first computer program.
Some biographers debate the extent of her original contributions. Dorothy Stein, author of Ada: A Life and a Legacy, contends that the programs were mostly written by Babbage himself. Babbage wrote the following on the subject, in his Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (1864).
I then suggested that she add some notes to Menabrea's memoir, an idea which was immediately adopted. We discussed together the various illustrations that might be introduced: I suggested several but the selection was entirely her own. So also was the algebraic working out of the different problems, except, indeed, that relating to the numbers of Bernoulli, which I had offered to do to save Lady Lovelace the trouble. This she sent back to me for an amendment, having detected a grave mistake which I had made in the process.
The level of impact of Lovelace on Babbage's engines is difficult to resolve from Babbage's writings due to Babbage's tendency not to acknowledge (either orally or in writing) the influence of other people in his work.
Lovelace died at the age of thirty-six, on 27 November 1852, from uterine cancer and bloodletting by her physicians. She was buried, at her request, next to her father at the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Hucknall, Nottingham.
 First "computer program"
In 1842 Charles Babbage was invited to give a seminar at the University of Turin about his analytical engine. Luigi Menabrea, a young Italian engineer, and future prime minister of Italy, wrote up Babbage's lecture in French, and this transcript was subsequently published in the Bibliothèque Universelle de Genève in October 1842.
Babbage asked the Countess of Lovelace to translate Menabrea's paper into English, subsequently requesting that she augment the notes she had added to the translation. Lady Lovelace spent most of a year doing this. These notes, which are more extensive than Menabrea's paper, were then published in The Ladies' Diary and Taylor's Scientific Memoirs under the initialism "AAL".
In 1953, over one hundred years after her death, Lady Lovelace's notes on Babbage's Analytical Engine were republished. The engine has now been recognised as an early model for a computer and Lady Lovelace's notes as a description of a computer and software.
Her notes were labelled alphabetically from A to G. In note G, the Countess describes an algorithm for the analytical engine to compute Bernoulli numbers. It is considered the first algorithm ever specifically tailored for implementation on a computer, and for this reason she is often cited in to be the first computer programmer. However the engine was never actually constructed to completion during Lovelace's lifetime.
The computer language Ada, created on behalf of the United States Department of Defense, was named after Lovelace. The reference manual for the language was approved on 10 December 1980, and the Department of Defense Military Standard for the language, "MIL-STD-1815", was given the number of the year of her birth. Since 1998, the British Computer Society has awarded a medal in her name and in 2008 initiated an annual competition for women students of computer science.
 Titles and styles
- 10 December 1815 – 8 July 1835: The Honourable Ada Augusta Byron
- 8 July 1835–1838: The Right Honourable the Lady King
- 1838 – 27 November 1852: The Right Honourable the Countess of Lovelace
- Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage, Esq. with notes by trans. Ada Lovelace, in Scientific Memoirs, Vol 3 (1842)
 See also
- ^ a b J. Fuegi and J. Francis, "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25 No. 4 (October–December 2003): 16–26. Digital Object Identifier
- ^ "Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace". http://cs-www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/ada-bio.html. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
- ^ Fuegi and Francis 2003 pp. 19, 25.
- ^ Stein, Ada, p. 14
- ^ a b Turney 1972 p. 35
- ^ a b Stein, Ada p. 17
- ^ Stein, Ada, p. 16
- ^ Turney 1972 pp. 36–38
- ^ a b Turney 1972 p. 138
- ^ Stein, Ada, pp. 28–30
- ^ Woolley, Benjamin (February 2002). The Bride of Science: Romance, Reason, and Byron's Daughter. ISBN 0-333-72436-4. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0071388605/. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
- ^ Stein, Ada, p. 82.
- ^ Turney 1972 p. 155
- ^ Turney 1972 pp. 138–139
- ^ a b Turney 1972 p. 139
- ^ Turney 1972 p. 159
- ^ Turney 1972 p. 160
- ^ Moore 1961 p. 431
- ^ Turney 1972 p. 161
- ^ Toole 1998, Acknowledgments.
- ^ Menabrea 1843.
- ^ Gleick, J. (2011), The Information: a History, a Theory, a Flood, London, Fourth Estate, pp116–118
- ^ Stein, Ada, pp. 92–110.
- ^ Babbage, Charles (1864). Passages from the life of a philosopher. p. 136. ISBN 0-8135-2066-5.
- ^ GRO Register of Deaths: December 1852 1a * MARYLEBONE – Augusta Ada Lovelace
- ^ Baum 1986 pp. 99–100
- ^ Fuegi; Francis (2003). pp. 16–26 .
- ^ http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2009/03/ada-lovelace-day.html
- ^ Lovelace Lecture & Medal. BCS. http://www.bcs.org/server.php?show=nav.5822. Retrieved 2 March 2008 .
- ^ Undergraduate Lovelace Colloquium, BCSWomen. Leeds. http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/bcswomen. Retrieved 6 March 2008 .
- ^ The Thrilling Adventures of Lovelace and Babbage
- ^ Experiments in Comics with Sydney Padua
- ^ "What is Ada Lovelace Day? And who is Ada Lovelace?". http://findingada.com/about/. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- ^ Suw Charman-Anderson. "Ada Lovelace Day: 7 October 2011". findingada.com. http://blog.findingada.com/blog/2011/03/03/ada-lovelace-day-7-october-2011/. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Baum, Joan. The Calculating Passion of Ada Byron. Archon Books, 1986. ISBN 0-208-02119-1
- Fuegi, J. and Francis, J. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25 No. 4 (October–December 2003): Digital Object Identifier
- Kim, Eugene and Toole, Betty Alexandra T, "Ada and the First Computer", Scientific American, May 1999
- Menabrea, Luigi Federico (1843). "Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage". Scientific Memoirs 3. http://www.fourmilab.ch/babbage/sketch.html. Retrieved 29 August 2008. With notes upon the Memoir by the Translator
- Moore, Doris Langley (1961). The Late Lord Byron. Philadelphia: Lippincott. ISBN 0-06-013013-X. OCLC 358063.
- Stein, Dorothy (1985). Ada: A Life and a Legacy. MIT Press Series in the History of Computing. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19242-X.
- Toole, Betty Alexandra Toole Ed.D, Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers, A Selection from the Letters of Ada Lovelace, and her Description of the First Computer (1992)
- Toole, Betty Alexandra Toole Ed.D., Ada, The Enchantress of Numbers: Poetical Science, 2010
- Turney, Catherine (1972). Byron's Daughter. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-12753-9.
- Woolley, Benjamin (February 2002). The Bride of Science: Romance, Reason, and Byron's Daughter. ISBN 0-333-72436-4. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0071388605/. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ada Lovelace|
- Ada Lovelace: Founder of Scientific Computing (SDSC Women in Science)
- "Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace", Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Ada Lovelace", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Lovelace.html .
- Ada Lovelace & The Analytical Engine
- Ada & the Analytical Engine
- Ada Lovelace, Countess of Controversy (g4tv.com)
- "Repurposing Ada" at Salon.com
- BBC Radio 4 – In Our Time – Ada Lovelace – streaming audio
- Biography of Ada Lovelace at L'Oreal: Women in Science
- Sketch of The Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage by L. F. Menabrea with notes upon the Memoir by the translator Ada Augusta, Countess of Lovelace
- Ada Lovelace's Notes and The Ladies Diary
|Name||Lovelace, Ada King, Countess Of|
|Date of birth||10 December 1815|
|Place of birth||London|
|Date of death||27 November 1852|
|Place of death||Marylebone, London|
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician Charles Babbage. It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, a design for a mechanical calculator. The Analytical Engine incorporated an arithmetical unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first Turing-complete design for a general-purpose computer.
Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding. It was not until 100 years later, in the 1940s, that the first general-purpose computers were actually built.
- 1 Design
- 2 Construction
- 3 Influence
- 4 Comparison to other early computers
- 5 References
- 6 External links
A Colossus Mark 2 computer. The operator on the left is Dorothy Duboisson. The slanted control panel on the left was used to set the pin patterns on the Lorenz. The "bedstead" paper tape transport is on the right.
|Manufacturer||Post Office Research Station|
|Type||Special-purpose electronic digital programmable computer|
|Release date||Mk 1: December 1943 (1943-12); Mk 2: 6 June 1944 (1944-06-06)|
|Discontinued||8 June 1945 (1945-06-08)|
|Media||Paper tape, teleprinter output|
|CPU||Custom circuits using valves and Thyratrons. A total of 1500 in each Mk I and 2400 in Mk II. Also uniselectors|
|Storage capacity||≤ 20 000 × 5-bit characters in each of two paper tape loops (one online, one standby)|
|Memory||None (no RAM)|
|Display||Indicator lamp panel|
|Input||console switches and plug panel|
Not to be confused with the fictional computer of the same name in the movie Colossus: The Forbin Project.
The Colossus machines were electronic computing devices used by British codebreakers to help read encrypted German messages during World War II. They used vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) to perform the calculations.
Colossus was designed by engineer Tommy Flowers with input from Harry Fensom, Allen Coombs, Sidney Broadhurst and William Chandler at the Post Office Research Station, Dollis Hill to solve a problem posed by mathematician Max Newman at Bletchley Park. The prototype, Colossus Mark 1, was shown to be working in December 1943 and was operational at Bletchley Park by February 1944. An improved Colossus Mark 2 first worked on 1 June 1944, just in time for the Normandy Landings. Ten Colossi were in use by the end of the war.
The Colossus computers were used to help decipher teleprinter messages which had been encrypted using the Lorenz SZ40/42 machine—British codebreakers referred to encrypted German teleprinter traffic as "Fish" and called the SZ40/42 machine and its traffic "TUNNY". Colossus compared two data streams, counting each match based on a programmable Boolean function. The encrypted message was read at high speed from a paper tape. The other stream was generated internally, and was an electronic simulation of the Lorenz machine at various trial settings. If the match count for a setting was above a certain threshold, it would be sent as output to an electric typewriter.
The Colossus was used to find possible key combinations for the Lorenz machines – rather than decrypting an intercepted message in its entirety.
In spite of the destruction of the Colossus hardware and blueprints as part of the effort to maintain a project secrecy that was kept up into the 1970s—a secrecy that deprived some of the Colossus creators of credit for their pioneering advancements in electronic digital computing during their lifetimes—a functional replica of a Colossus computer was completed in 2007.
- 1 Purpose and origins
- 2 The construction of Colossus
- 3 Design and operation
- 4 Influence and fate
- 5 Reconstruction
- 6 See also
- 7 Footnotes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 Other meanings
- 11 External links
Women in computing
- 1 The gender gap
- 2 Attracting women into computer science
- 3 Gender theory and women in computing
- 4 International perspective
- 5 Timeline of women in computing
- 6 Organizations for women in computing
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Timeline of women in computing
- 1842: Ada Lovelace (1815–1852), analyst of Charles Babbage's analytical engine and described as the "first computer programmer"
- 1893: Henrietta Swan Leavitt joins the Harvard computers, a group of women engaged in the production of astronomical data at Harvard; she is instrumental in discovery of the cepheid variable stars, which were evidence for the expansion of the universe.
- 1926: Grete Hermann publishes the foundational paper for computerized algebra
- 1942: Hedy Lamarr (1913–2000), Hollywood diva and co-inventor of an early form of spread-spectrum broadcasting
- 1943: WREN Colossus operators, during WW2 at Bletchley Park
- 1946: Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Fran Bilas, Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff, and Ruth Lichterman, original programmers of the ENIAC
- 1949: Grace Hopper (1906–1992), United States Navy officer and first programmer of the Harvard Mark I, known as the "Mother of COBOL". Developed the first ever compiler for an electronic computer known as A-0.
- 1961: Dana Ulery (1938-), computer scientist; first female engineer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developing real-time tracking systems using a North American Aviation Recomp II, 40-bit word size computer.
- 1962: Jean E. Sammet (1928-), mathematician and computer scientist; developed FORMAC programming language. Was the first to write extensively about history and categorisation of programming languages (1969).
- 1965: Mary Allen Wilkes computer programmer; First person to use a computer in a private home and the first developer of an operating system (LAP) for the first minicomputer (LINC)
- 1965: Sister Mary Kenneth Keller (1914? - 1985) first American female Doctorate of Computer Science (1965) 
- 1972: Karen Spärck Jones (1935–2007), pioneer of information retrieval and natural language processing
- 1973: Lynn Conway (1938-), led the "LSI Systems" group; co-authored Introduction to VLSI Systems
- 1978: Sophie Wilson (?), designed the Acorn Microcomputer.
- 1979: Carol Shaw (?), game designer and programmer for Atari Corp. and Activision
- 1980: Carla Meninsky (?), game designer and programmer for Atari 2600 games Dodge 'Em and Warlords
- 1983: Adele Goldberg (1945-), one of the designers and developers of the Smalltalk language
- 1984: Roberta Williams (1953-), pioneering work in graphical adventure games for personal computers, particularly the King's Quest series.
- 1984: Susan Kare (1954-), created the icons and many of the interface elements for the original Apple Macintosh in the 1980s, was an original employee of NeXT, working as the Creative Director.
- 1985: Radia Perlman (1951-), invented the Spanning Tree Protocol. Has done extensive and innovative research, particularly on encryption and networking. USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award 2007, among numerous others.
- 1985: Irma Wyman (~1927-), first Honeywell CIO
- 1986: Hannah Smith "Girlie tipster" for CRASH (magazine)
- 1988: Éva Tardos (1957-), recipient of the Fulkerson Prize for her research on design and analysis of algorithms
- 1993: Shafi Goldwasser (1958-), theoretical computer scientist, two-time recipient of the Gödel Prize for research on complexity theory, cryptography and computational number theory, and the invention of zero-knowledge proofs
- 1993: Barbara Liskov together with Jeannette Wing develops the Liskov substitution principle
- 1994: Sally Floyd (~1953-), most renowned for her work on Transmission Control Protocol
- 1996: Xiaoyuan Tu (1967-), first female recipient of the ACM's Doctoral Dissertation Award.
- 1997: Anita Borg (1949–2003), the founding director of the Institute for Women and Technology (IWT)
- 2001: Audrey Tang (1981-), initiator and leader of the Pugs project
- 2004: Jeri Ellsworth (1974-), self-taught computer chip designer and creator of the C64 Direct-to-TV
- 2005: Mary Lou Jepsen (1965-), Founder and chief technology officer of One Laptop Per Child (OLPC); founder of Pixel Qi.
- 2006: Frances E. Allen (1932-), first female recipient of the ACM's Turing Award
- 2008: Barbara H. Liskov (1939-), winner of the Turing prize 2008
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