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If you've been following graphics developments in the 2D world over the last few years you've probably seen a number of blogs and articles complaining about performance. In particular about how slow 2D is on GPUs. Have you ever wondered why it's possible to make this completely smooth but your desktop still sometimes feels sluggish?
For some weird reason ("neglect" being one of them) 2D rendering model hasn't evolved at all in the last few years. That is if it has evolved at all since the very first "draw line" became a function call. Draw line, draw rectangle, draw image, blit this, were simply joined by fill path, stroke path, few extra composition modes and such. At its very core the model remained the same though, meaning lots of calls to draw an equally large number of small primitives.
This worked well because technically zero, or almost zero, setup code was necessary to start rendering. Then GPUs became prevalent and they could do amazing things but to get them to do anything you had to upload the data and the commands that would tell them what to do. With time more and more data had to be sent to the GPU to describe the increasingly complex and larger scenes. It made sense to optimize the process of uploads (I keep calling them "uploads" but "GPU downloads" is closer to the true meaning) by allowing to upload an entire resource once and then refer to it via a handle. Buffers, shaders, addition of new shading stages (tessellation, geometry) all meant to reduce the size of data that had to be uploaded to the GPU before every rendering.
At least for games and well designed 3D software. 2D stuck to its old model of "make GPU download everything on every draw request". It worked ok because most of the user interface was static and rather boring so the performance was never much of an issue. Plus in many cases the huge setup costs are offset by the fact that the Graphics Processing Units are really good at processing graphics.
Each application is composed of multiple widgets each widget draws itself using multiple primitives (pixmaps, rectangles, lines, paths) and each primitive needs to first upload the data needed by the GPU to render it. It's like that because from the 2D api perspective there's no object persistence. The api has no idea that you keep re-rendering the same button over and over again. All the api sees is another "draw rectangle" or "draw path" call which it will complete.
On each frame the same data is being copied to the GPU over and over again. It's not very efficient, is it? There's a limited number of optimizations you can do in this model. Some of the more obvious ones include:
adding unique identifiers to the pixmaps/surfaces and using those as identifiers as keys in a texture cache which allows you to create a texture for every pixmap/surface only once,
collecting data from each draw call in a temporary buffer and copying it all at once (e.g. in SkOSWindow::afterChildren, QWindowSurface::endPaint or such),
creating a shader cache for different types of fills and composition modes
But the real problem is that you keep making the GPU download the same data every frame and unfortunately that is really hard to fix in this model.