- the study of the form, meaning, and use of words.
A friend, who's native language is not, English. Wrote me today and mentioned. That, while studying English. They just passed one exam on "Phonetics". And next, they have to pass a test on "Lexicology". Well, I would certainly be in trouble in this Class!:O
And to be honest... I really, only had a vague idea. Of what "Phonetics" really means. I think of Phonetics, as those symbols. Used, to help you to know how to pronounce written Words.
Such as this...
I have a friend named Rene. But, this in not a Girl named Renee. It's a guy named Réne. Pronounced, "Rain-ey". But, I can't even remember. How to type this symbol correctly on my keyboard. I copy and Pasted it from a FaceBook Page...
"For more examples... in English, the "t" in "top" sounds different from that in "stop". However, the "t"-sound in "stop" (which is less powerful the the "t" in the beginning of a word) only occurs after a "s" sound, while the "t" in "top" occurs everywhere else, and therefore these two sounds are in complementary distribution. We call this set of sounds a phoneme, and write it between two slashes, ie / /. Formally, /t/ becomes [t] after [s], and becomes [th] everywhere else. The superscript h means that the consonant before it is produced with a little more air." Read More, here... http://www.ancientscripts.com/phonetics.html
We use Phonetics, every day, In our word pronunciations. But, since I was raised and trained, from birth, in Speaking English. I never think of how things are phonetically pronounced. I just do, it. Now, on to the Word, Lexicology...
The term first appeared in the 1970s, though there were lexicologists in essence before the term was coined. Computational lexicology as a related field (in the same way that computational linguistics is related to linguistics) deals with the computational study of dictionaries and their contents.
An allied science to lexicology is lexicography, which also studies words, but primarily in relation with dictionaries – it is concerned with the inclusion of words in dictionaries and from that perspective with the whole lexicon. Sometimes lexicography is considered to be a part or a branch of lexicology, but properly speaking, only lexicologists who actually write dictionaries are lexicographers. Some consider this a distinction of theory vs. practice.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Lexical semantics
- 3 Phraseology
- 4 Etymology
- 5 Lexicography
- 6 Lexicologists
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
EtymologyThe word "lexicology" derives from the Greek λεξικόν lexicon, neut. of λεξικός lexikos, "of or for words", from λέξις lexis, "speech", "word" (in turn from λέγω lego "to say", "to speak") and -λογία -logia, "the study of", a suffix derived from λόγος logos, amongst others meaning "speech, oration, discourse, quote, study, calculation, reason", in turn also from λέγω.
DomainSemantic relations between words are of many kinds, for example homonymy, antonymy, meronymy, and paronymy. Semantics as specifically involved in lexicological work is called lexical semantics. Lexical semantics is somewhat different from the semantics of larger units such as phrases, sentences, and complete texts (or discourses), because it does not involve the same degree of compositional semantics complexities; however, the notion of "word" can be extremely complex, particularly in agglutinative languages.
Outside but related to linguistics, other forms of semantics are studied, such as cultural semantics and computational semantics (the latter may refer either to computational lexicology or mathematical logic.
HistoryLexical semantics may not be understood without a brief exploration of its history.
Prestructuralist semanticsSemantics as a linguistic discipline has its beginning in the middle of the 19th century, and because linguistics at the time was predominantly diachronic, thus lexical semantics was diachronic too – it dominated the scene between the years of 1870 and 1930. Diachronic lexical semantics was interested without a doubt in the change of meaning with predominantly semasiological approach, taking the notion of meaning in a psychological aspect: lexical meanings were considered to be psychological entities), thoughts and ideas, and meaning changes are explained as resulting from psychological processes.
Structuralist and neostructuralist semanticsWith the rise of new ideas after the ground break of Saussure's work, prestructuralist diachronic semantics was considerably criticized for the atomic study of words, the diachronic approach and the mingle of nonlinguistics spheres of investigation. The study became synchronic, concerned with semantic structures and narrowly linguistic structures.
Semantic structural relations of lexical entities can be seen in three ways:
- semantic similarity
- lexical relations such as synonymy, antonymy, and hyponymy
- syntagmatic lexical relations were identified
Etymology can be helpful in clarifying some questionable meanings, spellings, etc., and is also used in lexicography. For example, etymological dictionaries provide words with their historical origins, change and development.
As there are many different types of dictionaries, there are many different types of lexicographers.
Questions that lexicographers are concerned with are for example the difficulties in defining what simple words such as 'the' mean, and how compound or complex words, or words with many meanings can be clearly explained. Also which words to keep in and which not to include in a dictionary.
- Dr. Samuel Johnson (September 18, 1709 – December 13, 1784)
- French lexicographer Pierre Larousse (October 23, 1817-January 3, 1875)
- Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843)
- Russian lexicographer Vladimir Dal (November 10, 1801 – September 22, 1872)
- Damaso Alonso (October 22, 1898 - January 25, 1990): Spanish literary critic and lexicologist
- Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980): French writer, critic and lexicologist
- Ghil'ad Zuckermann (born June 1, 1971): linguist, revivalist and lexicologist, author of Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew
- Phono-semantic matching
- List of lexicographers
- List of linguists
- Computational lexicology
- English lexicology and lexicography
- Lexical Markup Framework
- Harris, Randy Allen (1993) The Linguistics Wars, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press
- Lexicology/Lexikologie: International Handbook on the Nature and Structure of Words and Vocabulary/Ein Internationales Handbuch Zur Natur and Struktur Von Wortern Und Wortschatzen, Vol 1. & Vol 2. (Eds. A. Cruse et al.)
- Words, Meaning, and Vocabulary: An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology, (ed. H. Jackson); ISBN 0-304-70396-6
- Toward a Functional Lexicology, (ed. G. Wotjak); ISBN 0-8204-3526-0
- Lexicology, Semantics, and Lexicography, (ed. J. Coleman); ISBN 1-55619-972-4
- English Lexicology: Lexical Structure, Word Semantics & Word-formation,(Leonhard Lipka.); ISBN 978-3-8233-4995-2
- Outline of English Lexicology , (Leonhard Lipka.); ISBN 3-484-41003-5
|Look up lexicology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Association for Automatic Language Processing (ATALA), Paris, France
- International Society for Historical Lexicography and Lexicology, University of Leicester
- 'L' entries (from lexeme to lexicon) at SIL (Summer Institute of Linguistics)'s glossary of linguistic terms
Word Definition - Phonetics [fuh-net-iks, foh-] noun, (used with a singular verb) 1. the science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. Compare acoustic phonetics, articulatory phonetics, auditory phonetics, physiological phonetics. 2. the phonetic system or the body of phonetic facts of a particular language. 3. the symbols used to represent the speech sounds of a language.
- Phonetics - Google Search
- Phonetics | Define Phonetics at Dictionary.com
- Phonetics - Wikipedia
- Type IPA phonetic symbols - online keyboard
- Ancient Scripts: Phonetics
- Phonetic | Define Phonetic at Dictionary.com
- English Phonetics